Open Access (free)
Strategic actions of an environmental organization in China
Xinhong Wang and Yuanni Wang

environmental volunteers’ organization in Hunan Province, China, and propose “soft confrontation” (柔性抗争rouxing kangzheng) as a new concept to critically examine actions and strategies of environmental organizations in China. The case of Green Hunan shows that organizations can adopt measures that are both collaborative and confrontational for the sake of environmental protection. Adapting soft strategies (Chakib 2014) such as media campaign and lobbying instead of hard ones such as environmental protests and road blocking, Green Hunan has maintained its legitimacy in its

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

these. Defining democracy may appear to be easy, but is in fact full of problems. representative government A political system in which the government is chosen by the people (for example, by elections), governs on their behalf, is accountable to them and owes its legitimacy to the fact that it is representative of the people in some manner. Many

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Douglas Blum

2504Chap2 7/4/03 12:38 pm Page 29 2 Contested national identities and weak state structures in Eurasia Douglas Blum Since their very inception, many of the Soviet successor states have been beset by ethnic violence, crime, trafficking – in arms, drugs and people – terrorism, poverty, pollution and migration.1 Most have also faced deeper problems of legitimacy and ideological drift. To a significant extent these pathologies can be traced back to the delegitimisation of the entire Soviet world view, and the lack of any viable replacement. The existence of an

in Limiting institutions?
Neil McNaughton

British citizen, some decisions which will affect you are made by ministers from Italy, Belgium, Portugal and the rest. But these ministers cannot be made responsible to that British citizen. Authority and legitimacy Political power should only be exercised in a democracy where there is proper authority for that power. Only with such authority can an institution be said 214 Understanding British and European political issues to be legitimate. European Union institutions draw their authority from less secure sources than do national bodies. Parliament is elected, of

in Understanding British and European political issues
Charles V. Reed

Asia, and the Pacific by appropriating local modes of legitimacy and systems of order into an imperial culture. 5 Colonial administrators, such as Lord Lytton in India or Theophilus Shepstone in Natal, sought to naturalise British rule by reimagining themselves as Mughal governors or African chiefs in an imperial hierarchy, atop of which sat the Great Queen. 6 The adoption of Mughal ceremonies

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
DSI approaches and behaviours
Jenny H. Peterson

would have been unable or unwilling to try. In some cases, control mechanisms may be needed and even desired by local actors in order to deal with acute problems in the post-conflict phase. In these cases, finding ways for the domestic actors to decide which control mechanisms are necessary, and how they should be implemented, will further the legitimacy and accountability mechanisms and therefore the sustainability of reform. In line with this, the agenda of control needs to be further dissected into long-term policies of control (such as installing neo

in Building a peace economy?
Jan Koehler and Christoph Zürcher

state was that it formally banned all open social conflict. On the other hand, it relied on social self-organisation to fill the gaps. Instead of founding its legitimacy on setting the general rules for local institutions regulating conflict, the state condemned those institutions to the shadows of informality or even criminality. Thus conflict was socially embedded in the informal sector but not institutionalised by official state institutions. By denying the existence of the conflicting interests of social groups the state was unable to provide a framework of checks and

in Potentials of disorder
M. Anne Brown

part of far-reaching transformations of political, social and economic life in China, and of fundamental struggles about how state power was constituted, and how it might be wielded. Thus the role of the Communist Party and of the people, the nature and basis of political legitimacy and the need to recreate or strengthen legitimacy for political rule within China, and the mechanisms by which political power in its broadest sense is exercised and communication or participation is made possible were and still are ‘unresolved and festering questions’ (Dittmer, 1989: 2

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
A twenty-first century trial?
Dominic McGoldrick

of a former head of state carried massive significance in terms of the power of law and institutions acting in the name of the international community. As many observers and the prosecution noted, the ghost of Nuremberg had finally risen. The trial proper began on 12 February 2002 and was expected to last up to two years. This chapter considers the principal features of the first war crimes trial of the twenty-first century in terms of personnel and procedures, the alleged crimes, and issues of legality and legitimacy. It also speculates on the narratives or non

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
City DNA, public health and a new urban imaginary
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos

volume, he considers the rapid proliferation of city health centres in contemporary Delhi. Bhan argues that ‘the squat’ in India can be understood only situationally, as a paradigmatic Indian southern practice. As a form of city practice squatting in India represents an urban intervention that invokes a notion of legitimacy as much as one of legality, following Partha Chatterjee’s ( 2004 ) landmark framing of a ‘politics of the governed’ that appeals to the values of legal discourse rooted in the appeal to constitutional rights to challenge the legitimacy of urban

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city