upon his land but rather rides or rambles over it, recurrently in a supervisory capacity (SW, pp. 389, 552, 556). This is, of course, a matter of
politicaleconomy; Jeﬀerson both celebrates self-suﬃciency yet also
acknowledges that he is able to enjoy his civilised life through entering the
ﬁeld of commerce. As Charles A. Miller comments: ‘Jeﬀerson wanted it
both ways’ in that ‘If American farmers took seriously the doctrines of
independence and self-suﬃciency, they would not produce for commerce
at all’.44 In the same way the dignity of self-suﬃcient labour
The politics of value and valuation in South Africa’s urban waste
Henrik Ernstson, Mary Lawhon, Anesu Makina, Nate Millington, Kathleen Stokes, and Erik Swyngedouw
analyses in order to develop understandings of the links between policy, technology, poverty, power and waste itself, particularly in light of the changing politicaleconomy of waste internationally, regionally and nationally and associated political and technological interventions. This is to say, we argue that the possibilities for making a decent livelihood from waste are shaped by factors as diverse as global carbon finance, the roll-out of kerbside collection of recyclables and the amount of food a household is willing to throw away. As a study of urban political
Ibid. , p. 193.
Martin Gorsky, ‘The PoliticalEconomy of Health
Care in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries’ in Mark Jackson (ed.),
The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine (Oxford: Oxford
industrialized and modernized. Developing institutions like
the civil service and military that could contain the urban
masses would also help, for rising expectations were reckoned
to constitute a serious threat to the political stability
upon which industrialization and modernization (and hence
democratization) ultimately depended (Huntington 1968).
However, in contrast to such conservative responses, the
second major response to the rising tide of authoritarianism was a reaction against modernization theory and an
embrace of radical or Marxist politicaleconomy.
Part of the
capitalism penetrated the region and disrupted
already contested power relations within the homestead. (p. 233)
She regards King Solomon’s Mines as deriving from Haggard’s 1870s
sojourn as a colonial administrator in Natal. The novel, accordingly,
reflects Natal’s operations against the self-determining Zulu kingdom.
Crucial to this non-capitalist Zulu politicaleconomy was the productive
labour of its women, organised through polygyny. Recognising this, colonialists targeted polygyny and imposed taxes that forced
applied in practice to Liberal foreign policy.
However, Cobden’s legacy of the argument for a fundamental
connection between free trade and peace between nations strengthened
the peace movement and provided it with the political and economic
ideas that were necessary to reach a wider audience. John Stuart Mill’s
Principles of PoliticalEconomy expanded upon Cobden’s thinking with
regard to free trade, although Mill’s particular version of liberalism was
not, of itself, wholly compatible with these ideas. His commitment to
laissez-faire economics was based upon a
imports in an effort to support local business.
With its rejection of tariffs and the provision of tax holidays and duty-free imports, the legislation of Shenfield and Gomes was in keeping with the recommendations of the Colonial Office. The Trinidad ordinances were underpinned by an attachment to a more liberal politicaleconomy than the more far-reaching and state-directed strategies advocated by Lewis or the Caribbean Commission. One account of the emergence of the Pioneer Industries Legislation in Trinidad claims that Gomes acknowledged in his
suggested by Goodman (2002: 272): ‘organic
production, other alternative agrofood networks, quality assurance schemes
and territorial strategies to valorise local food product’. However according
to Goodman, consumption has been under-theorised in the research devoted
to the politicaleconomy of agrofood, and this has led him to call for an
integrative approach to production and consumption. To integrate the consumption point of view in innovation studies regarding food chains is still a
challenge for both sociologists and economists.
One may observe that food markets and
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis
policy framework is based on the conviction that America’s prosperity depends
on the preservation of an interdependent global politicaleconomy, and that the
precondition for economic interdependence is the geopolitical stability and reassurance that flows from US security commitments. Policies of renationalisation
would destroy this reassurance and stability upon which US interests are presumed to rest. The assumption is that, if Washington cannot or will not solve
others’ problems for them, the world order strategy will collapse. Compelled to
provide for their
Way/Die Neue Mitte, a joint declaration
by Tony Blair and Gerhard Schröder, 8 June.
Botton, G. (1970) ‘Australia since 1939’, in I. Griffin (ed.), Essays in Economic
History of Australia (Milton: Jacaranda Press).
Bowers, P. (1975) ‘Labor close ranks for an early election’, Sydney Morning Herald,
Brenner, R. (2002) The Boom and the Bubble: the US in the World Economy (London
and New York: Verso).
Brezniak, M. and Collins, J. (1977) ‘The Australian crisis from boom to bust’,
Journal of Australian PoliticalEconomy, 1, October.
Brown, G. (2003) Speech by