A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

Open Access (free)
The Debt–Growth–Inequality Nexus
Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

States, later followed suit. 88 Debt as Power Regardless, issuing money as debt, as we have described above, not only creates hardships for individuals and countries unable to service or pay off their debts. We have tried to take that a little further and outline how debt is central to the global political economy as it has evolved since the fundamental institutional innovation of the Bank of England. As we have illustrated, it has been used as a means of expropriation of resources, a mode of discipline and market subjectification, and an instrument of control

in Debt as Power
Hans Peter Broedel

not be the immediate cause of magical harm, both because a demon actually effected the injury, and because the witch had no power to compel the demon to do her bidding, the extent to which witches were actually culpable for the injuries inflicted by demons in their name was questionable. The matter was further complicated by the fact that demons could act only with the permission of God. Hence, if demons acted merely in accordance with divine will, why should either the witch or the demon be blamed for the outcome? And why, too, should God have chosen to give the

in The <i>Malleus Maleficarum</i> and the construction of witchcraft
Reflections on contemporary anarchism, anti-capitalism and the international scene
Karen Goaman

reproduced for May Day 2002 in London. Here the May Day Collective called for an Anarchist Travelling Circus strand, a ‘mobile, spontaneous and collective performance, reclaiming the roots and culture of mayday!’ For future economic summits, more extensive itineraries, linking many cities and countries, are planned. The echoes of play and pleasure evoked by the notion of the ‘anarchist travelling circus’ connect to the following discussion on the power of the symbolic to expose the hollowness of everyday capitalist existence by appropriating the spaces of power. The highly

in Changing anarchism
Open Access (free)
War, Debt, and Colonial Power
Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

3 Intensification: War, Debt, and Colonial Power If the history of progress has been written as a history of the emergence of the autonomous, possessive and self-possessed individual, it was the history of indebtedness that underlay this teleology. The latter history has subsisted in the shadow of forgetfulness … . (Banerjee 2000: 423) The technology of debt was internationalized long before the state’s power to tax was capitalized on the basis of a permanent national debt. As we saw in Chapter 2, the key rupture with the past was the creation of the Bank of

in Debt as Power
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

noblewomen and power 7 Seals Representation, image and identity here are over 145 extant secular women’s seals from the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries.1 They present the historian with unique opportunities to study the portrayal of female identity in twelfth-century England. Seals were visual representations of power, and they conveyed notions of authority and legitimacy. They publicly presented a view of both men and women which visibly crystallised ideas about gender, class and lordship. The modern historian of seals owes a considerable debt to

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Anne McClintock and H. Rider Haggard
Laura Chrisman

capitalism penetrated the region and disrupted already contested power relations within the homestead. (p. 233) She regards King Solomon’s Mines as deriving from Haggard’s 1870s sojourn as a colonial administrator in Natal. The novel, accordingly, chapter2 21/12/04 11:09 am Page 40 40 Imperialism reflects Natal’s operations against the self-determining Zulu kingdom. Crucial to this non-capitalist Zulu political economy was the productive labour of its women, organised through polygyny. Recognising this, colonialists targeted polygyny and imposed taxes that forced

in Postcolonial contraventions
Washington’s painful search for a credible China policy
Börje Ljunggren

an added boost to its rapid economic growth. Today, China is the largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), by far the world’s largest trading nation in goods, and a potential world leader in key future technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI). In terms of alliances China may be “a lonely power”, but it is pursuing an increasingly pro-active role, taking advantage of strategic opportunities and launching initiatives of its own. These include the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

also always existed in an ‘international society’ with trade, diplomacy, law, morality and, inevitably, war, shaping their relations. state A political association that establishes sovereign power within a defined territorial area and possesses a monopoly of legitimate violence. The modern state arose from the break-up of European Christendom during the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Raymond Hinnebusch

This book and the study of the Middle East This study takes the Middle East to be constituted around an Arab core, with a shared identity but fragmented into multiple territorial states; the core is flanked by a periphery of non-Arab states – Turkey, Iran and Israel – which are an intimate part of the region’s conflicts and an integral part of its balance of power (Cantori and Spiegel 1970; Ismael 1986: 5–13). Because the Middle East’s unique features defy analyses based on any one conceptual approach to international

in The international politics of the Middle East