Open Access (free)
Ross M. English

examines the role and the power of the committee, the legislators who populate these bodies and discusses whether the committee system as a whole is good for democracy in modern America. Committee structure There is no mention of committees in the Constitution, but it quickly became clear that if Congress was to function properly as the federal legislature, some sort of division of labour was going to be necessary. To overcome the problems inherent 62 The United States Congress in getting a large group of legislators to deal effectively with a large range of detailed

in The United States Congress
Open Access (free)
Identity, heritage and creative research practice in Basilicata, southern Italy

Sonic ethnography explores the role of sound-making and listening practices in the formation of local identities in the southern Italian region of Basilicata. The book uses a combination of text, photography and sound recording to investigate soundful cultural performances such as tree rituals, carnivals, pilgrimages, events promoting cultural heritage and more informal musical performances. Its approach demonstrates how in the acoustic domain tradition is made and disrupted, power struggles take place and acoustic communities are momentarily brought together in shared temporality and space. This book underlines how an attention to sound-making, recording and listening practices can bring innovative contributions to the ethnography of an area that has been studied by Italian and foreign scholars since the 1950s. The approaches of the classic anthropological scholarship on the region have become one of the forces at play in a complex field where discourses on a traditional past, politics of heritage and transnational diasporic communities interact. The book’s argument is carried forward not just by textual means, but also through the inclusion of six ‘sound-chapters’, that is, compositions of sound recordings themed so as to interact with the topic of the corresponding textual chapter, and through a large number of colour photographs. Two methodological chapters, respectively about doing research in sound and on photo-ethnography, explain the authors’ approach to field research and to the making of the book.

Open Access (free)
Ross M. English

7 President and Congress President John Tyler stated that he enjoyed good health, and felt much better since Congress had finally adjourned. (L. A. Godbright, 1869) At the heart of the Constitution is the separation of power between the President of the United States and Congress. The President has the roles of chief diplomat, Commander-inChief of the Armed Forces and, as head of the executive branch, the responsibility for executing the laws passed by Congress. While the President and Congress were given separate powers and responsibilities, the Founding

in The United States Congress
Open Access (free)
Theoretical approaches
Finn Stepputat

against the ravages of death and the potential meaninglessness of life. By fulfilling these functions, the practices help forge the authority of the institutions that take responsibility for the transition from life to death. While not explaining how sovereignty comes into the picture, this is, in a very simple form, the point that a range of theories from Hobbes to psychoanalysis make regarding the linkage between power and the fear of death. Hobbes himself makes an explicit connection between sovereignty and the fear of (pain and) death. Noting that human beings are

in Governing the dead
Open Access (free)
The restructuring of work and production in the international political economy
Louise Amoore

. Paradoxically, both ‘pro-globalisation’ neo-liberal accounts, and so-called ‘anti-globalisation’ accounts reinforce the image of firms as abstract entities, thereby obscuring the webs of power and practice that constitute sites of production – and limiting the potential for a politicisation of the restructuring of work and production. It is the contention of this chapter that dominant representations of the firm within globalisation have underplayed the contested nature of the restructuring of work. Indeed, it has become the vogue to present globalisation as actively

in Globalisation contested
A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

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The Debt–Growth–Inequality Nexus
Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

States, later followed suit. 88 Debt as Power Regardless, issuing money as debt, as we have described above, not only creates hardships for individuals and countries unable to service or pay off their debts. We have tried to take that a little further and outline how debt is central to the global political economy as it has evolved since the fundamental institutional innovation of the Bank of England. As we have illustrated, it has been used as a means of expropriation of resources, a mode of discipline and market subjectification, and an instrument of control

in Debt as Power
Hans Peter Broedel

not be the immediate cause of magical harm, both because a demon actually effected the injury, and because the witch had no power to compel the demon to do her bidding, the extent to which witches were actually culpable for the injuries inflicted by demons in their name was questionable. The matter was further complicated by the fact that demons could act only with the permission of God. Hence, if demons acted merely in accordance with divine will, why should either the witch or the demon be blamed for the outcome? And why, too, should God have chosen to give the

in The <i>Malleus Maleficarum</i> and the construction of witchcraft
Reflections on contemporary anarchism, anti-capitalism and the international scene
Karen Goaman

reproduced for May Day 2002 in London. Here the May Day Collective called for an Anarchist Travelling Circus strand, a ‘mobile, spontaneous and collective performance, reclaiming the roots and culture of mayday!’ For future economic summits, more extensive itineraries, linking many cities and countries, are planned. The echoes of play and pleasure evoked by the notion of the ‘anarchist travelling circus’ connect to the following discussion on the power of the symbolic to expose the hollowness of everyday capitalist existence by appropriating the spaces of power. The highly

in Changing anarchism
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War, Debt, and Colonial Power
Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

3 Intensification: War, Debt, and Colonial Power If the history of progress has been written as a history of the emergence of the autonomous, possessive and self-possessed individual, it was the history of indebtedness that underlay this teleology. The latter history has subsisted in the shadow of forgetfulness … . (Banerjee 2000: 423) The technology of debt was internationalized long before the state’s power to tax was capitalized on the basis of a permanent national debt. As we saw in Chapter 2, the key rupture with the past was the creation of the Bank of

in Debt as Power