Open Access (free)

Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

without knowing the cost of one’s action seemed the height of folly. If the cuts were inevitable, they should surely be imposed more gradually, over five or six years rather than three: the additional cost would be very little higher, much rancour would be avoided, and the universities would be better equipped to meet the peak of demand from eighteen-year-old students which they expected in 1983. When the argument was put to Sir Keith Joseph, however, he refused to offer relief; the Government was interested not only in saving money, but also in forcing universities to

Open Access (free)

The battlefield against popery

Emigration and sectarian rivalry

Sarah Roddy

Irish Church Missions continued to the year 1869 (London, 1875), p. xvii. 47 W. D. Killen, Memoir of John Edgar (Belfast, 1867), pp. 227–34; B.N.L., 6 July 1849. 48 F.J., 2 Mar. 1849. 49 Bowen, Souperism, pp. 227–34. 50 The Tablet, 24 June 1847. 51 Bowen, Souperism, pp. 115–16. 52 [Matilda Charlotte] Houston, Twenty Years in the Wild West, or Life in Connaught (London, 1879), p. 47. 53 Mr and Mrs S. C. Hall, Ireland its Scenery Character and History (6 vols, Boston, 1911), vi, p. 153; A[senath] Nicholson, Annals of the Famine in Ireland, in 1847, 1848, and

Open Access (free)

Tania Anne Woloshyn

hindrance to the cure. Others were determined to prove that sunlight and artificial light could act just like X rays and penetrate through and beyond the body, blood and all. The French Dr Joseph Malgat (Nice) claimed that he had blackened photographic paper held behind a whole nude torso, arguing that sunlight penetrated through the entire body, reaching deeply seated lesions within it. Apparently Malgat

Open Access (free)

Series:

Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

International law was a matter for the ‘civilized states’, which set the standard of entry into the ‘charmed circle’, 40 as put by Thomas Erskine Holland, the second Chichele Professor of Public International Law at Oxford University. According to William Edward Hall, relations between states were akin to a Victorian social club: admission was granted to a state if it enjoyed a sufficient degree of European culture for its internal rules to be ‘understood or

Open Access (free)

Top people are different

Association and distinction in politics and religion

Rodney Barker

: The Ambassador, together with the diplomatic personnel from the Embassy and the Soviet officials, enter the hall: the Head of the appropriate geographical Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stands on the right of the Ambassador, on the left is the Head of Protocol Department. Simultaneously, the Chairman of the Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet enters through the opposite door in the hall; on his right is the Secretary of the Praesidium; on his left the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Ambassador stops one or two paces

Open Access (free)

Introduction

On Anglo-Saxon things

Series:

James Paz

þes wealstan’ [Wondrous is this wall-​stone] (1). Once again, body parts can also be described as wrætlic. Grendel’s severed head, this time, is referred to as ‘wliteseon wrætlic’ [a curious, beautiful sight] (1650) when Beowulf carries it into the mead hall for everyone to gaze upon. The Exeter Book riddles play on this overlap between adorned artefacts and curious or intriguing body parts which attract our attention with their unusual appearance. Riddle 44, for instance, describes something wrætlic that hangs beside a man’s thigh. Stiff and hard, it enters a hole

Open Access (free)

More than just kissing

Cousins and the changing status of family

Jenny DiPlacidi

, such as mother–son, father–daughter or brother–sister. The difficulty in coming to a clear consensus regarding the incestuous nature of cousin marriage is demonstrated by the irreconcilable differences between leading scientists and anthropologists on cousin incest. Sociobiologist Joseph Shepher argues that ‘most cultural forms of mating’, including preferential cousin marriages, ‘represent cultural

Open Access (free)

Janet Wolff

changed radically as building progressed – public buildings like the Cheetham Town Hall of 1853–55 (now the Saffron Eastern Cuisine restaurant), family houses and artisans’ homes. Strangeways and Red Bank, areas adjacent to Cheetham, and on the outskirts of the city centre, were developed as industrial sites, with growing numbers of workshops and factories established. When Jews from Eastern Europe began to arrive in large numbers in the late nineteenth century, they settled in these areas, setting up small businesses as tailors, merchants, cabinet makers, jewellers

Open Access (free)

Jonathan Purkis

value-free one. Equally committed to such ideas were a number of the ‘classical’ anarchists. For instance, both Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1923: 150ff.) and Mikhail Bakunin suggested that it was through science that humans could realise their true social natures, the latter arguing that ‘natural laws were in harmony with human liberty’ (1985: 34). He did, however, question the right of these savants to use it to rule, as science should be ‘the property of everybody’ (1985: 62). These ideas about science and power were not lost on Peter Kropotkin who worked within the

Open Access (free)

Introduction

Speaking pictures?

Chloe Porter

. 7 See Lucy Gent, Picture and Poetry 1560–1620: Relations between Literature and the Visual Arts in the English Renaissance (Leamington Spa: James Hall, 1981 ), p. 6; Edward Chaney, The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations since the Renaissance (London: Frank Cass, 1998 ), p. xiii, and John Peacock, The