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Communism, post-Communism, and the war in Croatia

, peaceloving, and Western. As such, their forced union within Yugoslavia led to Serbian dominance and violence, while the Croats were exploited and victimised. Most of their sociological metaphors and historical studies, while interesting, had little or no bearing on the reality of events in Yugoslavia. One such example was an examination of Alexis de Tocqueville’s study of the American Civil War. The United States became an analogy for Communist Yugoslavia, described as ‘the sometimes unhappy union of two distinct and opposing cultures’, composed of the ‘Southern aristocrat

in Balkan holocausts?

Charlemagne, a part of what would become the Holy Roman Empire. This empire consisted of hundreds of political units of widely varying sizes and shapes, including noncontiguous territories, speaking different dialects and developing different cultures, headed by kings, princes, dukes, counts, bishops, and various and assorted minor nobility generally referred to as knights. Those who lived within the borders of the empire were not all Germans by today’s standards, but most were even if they did not know it. For in the middle ages, people did not think in terms of

in The Länder and German federalism
Adjusting to life after the Cold War

-orientated, away from the orthodoxy of the previous forty years, to ensure Germany’s standing as a credible and important ally equipped to deal with unprecedented risks and challenges in line with the pervading strategic culture. The steep learning curve and incremental policy adjustment that occurred during the 1990s are examined in this chapter through the prism of the changing role of the Bundeswehr during the period between the wars in the Gulf and Kosovo of 1990 and 1999. In this time-frame the pace of change was relatively swift, as German security policy exhibited an

in Germany and the use of force
Open Access (free)

The Economist ’s “Survey of Turkey” might serve as a motto for our discussion: Turkey is more like a tree, with roots in many different cultures and ethnicities. In its early years it was pruned and trained to grow strictly in one direction: Turkish. Now, in its maturity, its branches tend to go their own way, seeking their own kind of light. 1 Up until the winter of 1991, there were no Kurds in Turkey, merely “Mountain Turks” – even in this definition an aspect of Turkishness was granted to the

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

THIS CHAPTER EXPLORES, through a discussion of one instance, how the principal categories of the Lockean narrative can shape the context for the understanding of and response to political injury. In the case of much Western response to the Beijing massacre the conceptualisation of man and the state is particularly important, as is the related articulation of the realms of ethics and politics. The following discussion of the Beijing killings also questions the adequacy of the terms of the debate between citizenship rights and human rights

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Reflections on contemporary anarchism, anti-capitalism and the international scene

reproduced for May Day 2002 in London. Here the May Day Collective called for an Anarchist Travelling Circus strand, a ‘mobile, spontaneous and collective performance, reclaiming the roots and culture of mayday!’ For future economic summits, more extensive itineraries, linking many cities and countries, are planned. The echoes of play and pleasure evoked by the notion of the ‘anarchist travelling circus’ connect to the following discussion on the power of the symbolic to expose the hollowness of everyday capitalist existence by appropriating the spaces of power. The highly

in Changing anarchism
From revolution to reform

only in terms of the PCF’s historical comportment. No discussion of the French party system is possible without taking into account the size and nature of what was, for most of the cold war, the biggest Communist Party in the western world. French Communism has had both negative and positive effects on the party system. It was, on the one hand, the great party of the left dominating the parts of society which in other western countries were social democratic. It was tightly organised and ran unions, societies and associations which it used for its own purposes and it

in The French party system
Dominant approaches

assertion of human rights has become a kind of repository of secular virtue – a declaration of the sacred in the absence of the divine. In the Western liberal democracies, human rights are claimed as political home or as a principal ‘instrument of struggle’ by the libertarian right, by liberals of various persuasions, by socialists who feel the traditional socialist agenda has been overtaken by events and by ‘post-liberal democrats’. To declare in a debate that the matter at hand involves rights can be to ‘trump’ discussion, drawing the limits beyond which exchange may

in Human rights and the borders of suffering

planet. In actual fact, since the outset of the War on Drugs, there has been both a proliferation of drug use across the whole world and an enormous growth in the numbers of consumers. Former Eastern Bloc nations where drug use was previously virtually unknown now have huge burgeoning drug markets fuelled by the breakdown of borders, the growth in trade and ultimately by mass populations with a desire to seek out new forms of oblivion. Wars of metaphor are an important element in modern political culture and the War on Drugs and the War on Terror are the latest in a

in Changing anarchism

settlement since 1990. It analyses the impact of different cooperative organisations on conflict management, both directly and via the changes in governmental policies towards ethnic conflict and the identities which fostered it. Of special interest are the current policies of the ‘external’ powers (Russia, Turkey, Iran and western countries) and the possible changes in their policies towards the region, which might promote the construction of a regional security community and, as a consequence, conflict management in the Caucasus. A high conflict potential in the Caucasian

in Potentials of disorder