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amendments reflect newer concerns, such as protecting the environment or personal privacy and liberty by restricting the dissemination of data.11 The legal framework for Land constitutions According to German legal theory, the Länder are “states” that enjoy considerable legal autonomy within the German federal system. They are not derived from the federation but rather are recognized by it.12 They are not “states” in the sense of international law,13 even though they do have limited powers in certain areas of foreign policy.14 As states, the Länder have constitutional

in The Länder and German federalism
Some questions for Rainer Bauböck

all within the jurisdiction needs to track the impact of being subject to coercive legislation on individuals’ freedom. While tourists will hardly qualify, temporary migrants may experience significant restrictions of their autonomy, especially if they do not enjoy the same freedom of movement and legal protections as long-term residents.(p. 31) Notice what this obscures

in Democratic inclusion
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Nonreading in late-medieval England

that echoes through the letter’s movement. Facilitated by Pandarus, the letter here asserts a violent, sexualized authority over Criseyde’s body, acting not only as a communicative object and love-token, but as assailant. This work of the letter thus queers Criseyde’s body as the two intermingle, destabilizing Criseyde’s bodily privacy and independence. In this way, analysing the work of nonreading in this scene shows how the letter compromises Criseyde’s bodily autonomy, thus undermining her earlier claim that ‘I am myn owene womman’ (II.750). This loss of autonomy

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England
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, scholars of federalism have put forward the following structural prerequisites which states must meet before they can be classified as federations:40 1) The existence of at least two-tiers of government, both tiers of which have a formal constitutional distribution of legislative, executive and judicial powers and fiscal autonomy, 2) Some form of voluntary convenant or contract among the components – normally a written constitution (not unilaterally amendable and requiring for amendment the consent of a significant proportion of the constituent units), 3) Mechanisms to

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
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order to protect their fundamental beliefs, coalitions are prepared to compromise within the secondary aspects of their belief systems. This learning inspired compromise is promoted by a culture of mutual adjustment within the EU. From within this mediation has emerged a more co-ordinated sports policy. The construction of the separate territories approach for dealing with legal disputes involving sport is the defining characteristic of this policy. Separate territories refers to the definition of a territory for sporting autonomy and a territory for legal

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
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Flexible and pragmatic adaptation

2444Ch12 3/12/02 12 2:05 pm Page 298 Danielle Bossaert Luxembourg: flexible and pragmatic adaptation Participating in European integration to strengthen national autonomy1 With 406,000 inhabitants and a surface area of 2.586 km2, Luxembourg is by far the smallest Member State of the European Union. The highly positive attitude of the Luxembourg people towards the Union, expressed, for example, in the Eurobarometer surveys which are carried out on a regular basis, can be explained not merely by Luxembourg’s history, but also by the specific characteristics

in Fifteen into one?
Introduction and overview

for women’s wage penalties over the life course. Furthermore, employers’ exploitative practices towards female workers who are assumed to be locked into local labour markets are found to hinder wage prospects and the exercise of autonomy at work (Cooke and Xiao, 2014; Figart et al., 2005; Korpi et al., 2013; Lewis et al., 2008; Merluzzi and Dobrev, 2015; Rubery et al., 1999; Tavora and Rubery, 2013; Ugarte, 2017; Weinkopf, 2014). i) Labour market segmentation – Employers’ pay and ­employment practices (e.g. internal labour markets versus periphery ­segments

in Making work more equal
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From idealism to pragmatism (1984–2002)

based on five principal characteristics: plural leadership; rotation; limitations on multiple office-holding; the absence of a professionalised leadership; and regulated gender parity (Rihoux, 2001: 123). Their aim is to build a ‘different’ party whose rationale lies in the importance of grass roots democracy (Poguntke, 1993: 136–48). For the French Greens, the organisation should formally ensure equality for all members, regardless of their function or power within the movement. Four principles derive from this: the primacy of regions (regions have complete autonomy

in The French party system

-brokers can, and regularly do, take advantage of this belief to subvert the priorities of developing world governments, national medical professional associations, local communities and millions of families. Too often, countries’ autonomy and authentic independence are the collateral damage of top-down global health. Unfortunately, this happens to a greater or less degree in most global immunisation initiatives, 11 but the most extreme and blatant loss of autonomy

in The politics of vaccination

was no capital city of the Reich, and the emperor traveled from place to place with his entourage to demonstrate his authority. His territorial base consisted of his own lands.5 Only in these territories did the emperor rule directly. While the princes of the realm were not sovereign, they did enjoy considerable autonomy (Landeshoheit). The empire served to protect the smaller territories from annexation by their more powerful neighbors, and it provided some protection from outside threats to their territorial integrity. The nobility was based on heredity, but that

in The Länder and German federalism