marriage and divorce, child custody, inheritance and burial. This reliance on Orthodox Judaism for monitoring the contours of the Jewish nation has problematized women’s struggles for equality since, according to Orthodox interpretations of scripture and custom, women occupy traditional roles as mothers and bearers of children. In fact, according to Orthodox interpretations, a Jew is defined as having been

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Colonialism and Native Health nursing in New Zealand, 1900–40

prevention, they did attempt to confront what they regarded as hindrances to effective nursing and impose their will on the locals, even to the extent of admitting they could be ‘quite bossy’ with patients.71 Challenges included isolation when dealing with infectious diseases, tangi (burial practices), maternity practices and the nurses’ relationships with tohunga (traditional healers). At every step of the way they were required – or chose – to compromise. The first issue many nurses had to deal with, as noted earlier, was typhoid. Bagley regretted that nurses were not

in Colonial caring
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30

the Government for everything, as has been the case until now’.7 One of the government’s largest efforts was to remove governmental associations with the Roman Catholic Church, and established secular rules for civil life, including civil marriage, divorce and burial. Although nominally secular, the colonial government maintained a close association with Protestant missionaries, and the missions were aligned with the government. Protestant missionaries and the colonial mission From the beginning the American presence in the islands was not limited to representatives

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
The daily work of Erich Muhsfeldt, chief of the crematorium at Majdanek concentration and extermination camp, 1942–44

the camp, the mass graves were constantly expanded.18 Seitz, too, indicated in his interrogation that the corpses were ‘buried’ 19 in the beginning. ‘For the transport and burial of the corpses there was a special squad consisting of Polish Jewish prisoners of war’,20 Muhsfeldt explained at the 1947 Krakow Auschwitz trial. But this method was uneconomical and too timeconsuming in the long run, since corpses had to be transported to the graves in trucks. In June 1942 the first crematorium, made by the Kori company in Berlin, was built between Fields I and II

in Destruction and human remains

‘plenty of opportunities for debate, discussion and delay, and for a gradual and ceremonial burial’, said Bundy, suggesting this course. The President’s ‘wisdom, caution and good judgement will have the praise of liberals, of military men, of the British, of the French, and of many Germans – and you will have freedom to make a different choice later if you wish’. 65 Johnson supported these pragmatic ideas about the MLF more

in A ‘special relationship’?
Open Access (free)
New retro movies in 1990s Hollywood cinema

. 11 See, for instance, debates in Kevin S. Sandler and Gaylyn Studlar (eds), Titanic: Anatomy of a Blockbuster (London: Rutgers University Press, 1999); Thomas B. Byers, ‘History Re-remembered: Forrest Gump , Postfeminist Masculinity, and the Burial of the Counterculture’, Modern Fiction Studies 42: 2 (1996), 41–44; and Jennifer Hyland Wang

in Memory and popular film
Open Access (free)

long before his burial in England as the ultimately beloved performer of his royal role. THE ELIZABETHAN DIVA Film portraits of Victoria follow the lead of the Queen herself in emphasising the happiness and stability of the royal family . ‘A family on the throne is an interesting idea’, the nineteenth-century political journalist Walter Bagehot enthused, comparing its popular appeal to the dull

in The British monarchy on screen
Enigmas, agency and assemblage

see the infant Jesus in his manger, watched over by a shepherd? The runic verse in the borders suggests something different altogether. Is this actually a sorrowful burial mound (hærmberga) containing a skeleton with grave goods? Have I been led, or misled, into a dead end? Even if I decide to carry on, to the right, I must move round to the back, then to the left side, and at last I  am back inside Wayland’s smithy on the front. The ostensibly ‘pagan’ and the ‘Christian’ are always meeting across the casket. Since we are back once more in the smithy, we ought to

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
Open Access (free)

place of enfeebled and impotent government. It should be noted that some 1,500 new mosques are constructed annually. Altogether there are more than 80,000 mosques in Turkey – a mosque for every 800 people – some of which clearly indicating the strength of religious defiance vis-à-vis secular Kemalism. See, for instance, the monumental Kocatepe Mosque in Ankara that overlooks Anitkabir, Ataturk’s mausoleum and burial ground. But apart from soul saving, Muslim bodies also provide education, health services, housing, and employment. Islamic banks offer interest

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

of the Church. Evidence from surveys conducted by the Church during the second half of the nineteenth century indicated they were beginning to lose their grip on both the individual and the communal psyche, particularly in urban areas. Church attendance was declining, civil burial becoming more popular, and the Church’s traditional ban on marriage during Lent and Advent was observed less and less, for example. 7 It was not

in Witchcraft Continued