nation-state they aimed to create. Darrell Figgis's contribution to the intellectual development of the Sinn Féin project bore the imprimatur of co-operative idealism. Figgis, a regular visitor to Æ's house, spent several stints in prison on account of his political activities. He published nationalist propaganda and enjoyed close access to Sinn Féin leaders, becoming a trusted confidant to Arthur Griffith, the Vice-President of Dáil Eireann. After independence, he played a key role in writing the Irish Free State's first constitution. 19 Figgis

in Civilising rural Ireland

to pay their respects to a man who at some stage offered inspiration, intellectual guidance and support. By the time the two most famous and committed of Irish co-operators passed, the original idealism that once animated the movement had settled down into the mundane business of rural life. The co-operative societies framed everyday working practices, provided a social space, and showed that an alternative and radical economic model could become an accepted social norm. The co-operative creameries that once proved to be such a point of

in Civilising rural Ireland

middle ground between Eliot’s idealism and Ford’s impressionism, for, as he states: ‘If Conrad shares Babbitt’s desire for order, he also shares Pater’s conviction that consciousness is the source of meaning and value’ (p. 35). It must be ordered consciousness, 2395Chap7 7/5/02 210 8:41 am Page 210 Fragmenting modernism however, with a clear distinction between subject and object. Ford does not fully recognise such a distinction and this, ultimately, is the crucial factor. When Robert Lowell asked Ford a question, whilst assisting him on the production of his

in Fragmenting modernism
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principle of it – seems to have concealed the secret. It is the obvious thing that invariably escapes our notice. In our moments of idealism we talk of ‘hitching our wagon to a star’. May we not, in a more prosaic and material spirit, harness our bodies to the Sun? 1 (Edward J. Deck, 1926) The

in Soaking up the rays
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Art and interpretation

his suspicion of philosophical attempts to arrive at an absolute conception of reality. It is here that he most obviously belongs on the Romantic side of the Romanticism/Idealism divide, and differs from Hegel in particular. For Hegel, once the transience of systems of thought is philosophically understood it is possible to overcome the differences of the various systems in the absolute Idea. His Logic is therefore a self-contained ‘science of knowledge’, which can articulate itself through the immanent contradictions in thought that give it its dynamic quality. The

in Aesthetics and subjectivity

seen as not having the status of objects of knowledge. The System of Transcendental Idealism, though, saw art as combining the conscious and the unconscious, and as involving a moment in which time is abolished, so that all reflection ceases. This made it into the ‘organ’ of an Idealist philosophy, in which identity of subject and object was documented.19 Romantic philosophy does not rely on this identity, and instead sees our only sense of this identity in the incompleteness we feel in relation to our ability to grasp art. The artwork is therefore inherently temporal

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Leopold von Sacher-Masoch’s Venus im Pelz (1870)

represents a turn against idealism (especially prevalent in German literature at this period), as well as a turn towards scientific thought, specifically Darwinian method. Both strategies permitted him to see the world differently from many of his contemporaries. This was a time when writers in Germany anticipated and strived for German unification, and were inclined to aestheticise and idealise bourgeois life.59 Inspired by Charles Darwin and philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, among others, Sacher-Masoch was critical of such romantic tendencies within German culture.60 Like

in A history of the case study
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This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, details of the political careers of significant West European politicians, especially those who have been head of their country’s government or head of state.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics