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Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

Conservatism is one of the major intellectual and political strains of thought in Western culture over the last two centuries. Originating as something of a ‘reaction’ to the radical, liberal and, later, socialist movements during the early period of industrialisation in Britain and Europe, conservatism remains a powerful ideological force in Western societies today. We explore

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
A pluralist theory of citizenship
Rainer Bauböck

1. Introduction Who has a claim to be included in a democratic polity? This has been a vexing question for political theorists as well as legislators and judges. Philosophers have tried to make the problem go away by adopting one of two contrasting strategies. The first response is that democratic principles cannot resolve the problem and therefore we have to accept the historical contingency of

in Democratic inclusion
Open Access (free)
Individuals acting together
Keith Graham

and political questions, which is present in many areas of actual human life. In section 1 I discuss the general idea of community, then offer and explore a specific conception of community as collective agency. In section 2 I suggest that membership of a collective agency raises, but does not of itself settle, important questions about loyalty, allegiance and dissociation. In section 3 I suggest that the existence of

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

. egalitarianism The belief that social equality is the main political good. Egalitarians challenge the implications for morality and fundamental equality of scientific developments that are as yet in their infancy. Genetic differences, they assert, no more justify social inequality than does the long-established genetic basis for hair colour, skin colour or gender, or whether one has blue or

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Theoretical approaches
Finn Stepputat

2 Governing the dead? Theoretical approaches Finn Stepputat Following a trend of emerging interest in carnal fetishism1 and the politics of dead bodies (Verdery 1999), this volume focuses on the particular relationship between sovereignty on the one hand and (dead) bodies and human remains on the other, arguing that this analysis can help us understand fundamental ways in which sovereignty is claimed and performed. We see sovereignty as an effect of practices that are fundamentally related to the body and to issues of life and death, and pertaining to the state

in Governing the dead
Open Access (free)
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

against the indigenous peoples or for acts of violence by the great powers when conquering neighbouring territories, as in the case of Russia in the Caucasus and central Asia. Such acts were not even acknowledged by the governments in question. As Mowat had put it: ‘Civilized Governments do not openly acknowledge themselves to be bandits or plunderers; they can always put forward a “case” in their favour. This they do … partly because, for political reasons, they do not wish

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

Liberalism has become the dominant ideology at the start of the third millennium. Like conservatism it cannot be easily identified with one particular political party. We trace the origins of liberalism back to the late seventeenth century and the political turmoil in England that followed the civil wars of the middle of the century. After this, liberalism’s ‘golden age’ during

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

Thomas Anderson, Darren Aronofsky, Christopher Nolan and the Coen brothers, he still extended his artistic reach, consolidating himself both as a filmmaker that producers and production crews alike are keen to work with, and as a totem for a range of Left-​ leaning causes and critiques marshalled against the government and media. Indeed, while the veneration of the Hollywood establishment reduced, Stone’s auteur brand –​strengthened ironically enough by his political credentials –​actually increased in some overseas territories. Nevertheless, the commercial environment

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
Debates about potential and ambition in British socialist thought
Jeremy Nuttall

, socialists have focused ever more strongly on the issue of people’s ambitions and talents as they have battled with the political right for the electorally rewarding association with concepts like social mobility, opportunity and ‘getting on’, and as individuals’ expectations about what they can achieve, learn and enjoy have risen. Socialist assessments of the best means to liberate people’s potential have also changed. Many now see education policy as being more important than nationalisation in enhancing people’s life chances, and, more broadly, see the fulfilment of

in In search of social democracy
Mads Qvortrup

down the wrath of the proto-positivist thinkers of his day. Yet, while Rousseau was a ‘gospel Christian’ (at least by his own definition), he was also preoccupied with the moral and political implications of secularism. Especially the development (or demise) of ethical theory after Hobbes. It is not least because of this that he is of interest to the modern science of politics. Rousseau rejected the Hobbesian view. In opposition to his colleagues he maintained that the ‘summation of all morality is given by the Gospel in its summation of the Law’ (III: 155–6). The

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau