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left in the 1970s; the talented mobilisation of prejudice by Jean-Marie Le Pen during the 1980s and 1990s. Finally, analysis of party system evolution must also incorporate a third series of explanations based on social change: these vary from neo-Marxist arguments relating to the emergence of the social class as the salient electoral cleavage, giving a sociological underpinning to left–right bipolarisation, to sociological analysis pinpointing the emergence of the ‘new middle classes’ as the central groups in post-war French society, favouring the emergence of broad

in The French party system
Perspectives on civilisation in Latin America

dissonances of civilisations. Furthermore, I argue that problems of authenticity and of historical continuity and discontinuity have been central to cultural and political thought of movement engaging international currents. Latin America in the cross-​currents of history Cultural and political engagement began in earnest for independent Latin American societies in the 1880s. Perspectives in culture and politics in post-​ colonial Latin America speak to an ‘Americanism’ expressed in the phrase nuestra América, first popularised by Cuban nationalist José Martí. In reaction

in Debating civilisations
The role of France and French interests in European development policy since 1957

. African states increasingly had to conclude agreements with the international financial institutions (IFIs) in order to get loans. These loans have been more and more subjected to strong economic conditionalities, including reform of their economies, control of expenses and implementation of sound macroeconomic policies. Instead of trying to formulate an alternative model to the ‘Washington consensus’, the European Union and the member states have progressively aligned their policies according to the approach of the IFIs (see chapter 2). If the effects of structural

in EU development cooperation

9 Robert Eaglestone Critical knowledge, scientific knowledge and the truth of literature Introduction: criticism has the character of knowledge, but it is not a kind of scientific knowledge At the now-famous conference at Johns Hopkins University in 1966 that introduced both structuralism and what one could call, roughly, ‘post-structuralism’ to the USA, the critic Georges Poulet meditated about the nature of reading: a book is not shut in by its contours, is not walled up as in a fortress. It asks nothing better than to exist outside itself, or to let you

in The new aestheticism

-oriented growth. As T. K. Whitaker, the architect of the post-1958 turn towards foreign loans and investments, put it at the time, ‘there is really no choice for a country wishing to keep pace materially with the rest of Europe’.24 So, Ireland joined the European Economic Community in 1973 and the removal of protectionism proceeded at full pace. When Ireland ‘joined’ Europe in 1973, it was very much as a poor relation and major beneficiary of all the ‘structural funds’ made available for ‘less developed’ regions. It seemed that Ireland was exchanging selfreliance for dependency

in The end of Irish history?
Open Access (free)
Managing diabetes, managing medicine

diabetes were as numerous as those from all infectious diseases put together’ during the 1930s, and estimates of the condition's prevalence rose steadily over the post-war period. 3 Likewise, medical professionals regularly referred to increases in workload and escalating consultations for the disease during the 1970s and 1980s; new technologies and understandings of risk management had extended the boundaries of treatment, whilst greater life expectancy and disease detection buttressed changes of demography, employment, leisure, and diet that probably underpinned

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Analysing two arenas over time

complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). Unlike volumes on the general structure and culture of European political systems, this volume focuses on reactions and adaptations to a challenge which is common to all – i.e. the policy-cycle of the Union. We thus intend to explore structural commonalities and differences with a common point of reference. Fifteen traditional systems and their variations may be better explained when the comparison is based on the

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Everyday trajectories of activism

’ rather than reducing respondents to ‘a bunch of disembodied thoughts that come out of subjects’ mouths in interviews’ (Duneier and Back, 2006: 553). This attention to individual agency (motivations, choices, turning points) requires embedding in the socio-economic context of those lives at a more structural level; while macrostructural determinants may not be immediately visible to the ethnographic eye, they remain ‘inscribed in the material distribution of resources and social possibles’ (Wacquant, 2008: 10–11). Realising this aspiration is problematic in this study

in Loud and proud
Journalism practice, risk and humanitarian communication

and more radical narratives around structural change, which in many ways reflect these debates. While journalism covering suffering normatively advocates for assistance and equal opportunities it nevertheless also tends to suggest that cosmic justice is unviable. That issues such as corruption, lack of institutional framework and ‘civilised’ political engagement in these societies are not only the

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery

Young Sam in a televised address warned his fellow-citizens to prepare for an indefinite period of humiliating “bone-carving pain.”10 What went wrong? Competing explanations Why did an economy with such seemingly sound fundamentals succumb so quickly to the economic shock? Two general interpretations have informed the discussion. According to the “fundamentalist” view, the Asian crisis was caused by poor economic fundamentals and policy inconsistencies. Proponents of this view argue that apparently sound macroeconomic indicators masked systemic structural problems

in The Asian financial crisis