The dynamics of multilateralism in Eurasia

significant countervailing pressures within Eurasia might force Russia to consider more cooperative or issue-linked bargaining strategies that eventually are reflected in new institutional forms. However, in the short term, Russia would be more likely to favour working bilaterally with each GUUAM member (as it has with Ukraine and Moldova) to undermine institutional cohesion. It is possible that with the growing US–Russian accommodation, reflecting a common interest in combating terrorism, the historical fears of Russian hegemony in the region will be allayed – particularly

in Limiting institutions?
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds

–South conflict, as we use the term, came into being in the mid-1950s when the South began to organise itself politically. In its initial period, the conflict had two major manifestations: decolonisation and non-alignment. The significant point in relation to both is that during this early phase the South defined itself vis-à-vis the North primarily in ‘negative’ terms. In other words, the southern countries

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
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Corruption breeds violence

could be as high as 20,000 (the lowest estimate is 6,000). While Abkhazia was the richest province of Georgia in the 1980s, by 1992 its economy had been weakened (there still were tourists on the beaches when tanks rolled into Sukhumi) and there was no local basis for sustaining the hostilities on such a scale. The external sources of support that Abkhazia was able to mobilise were only short-term which necessitated efforts to achieve a decisive victory. The deployment of Russian peacekeepers in July 1994 (about 3,000 troops) under the CIS mandate and UN monitoring (by

in Potentials of disorder
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reported in 2012 that there were, at that point, twenty-​one NFL teams playing in stadiums built or renovated using tax-​free public borrowing. The accepted wisdom has been that these deals are good for local economies, and indeed cities have vied with each other to attract teams to their locality, despite evidence that the deals bring poor long-​term value to the communities and depress federal tax revenue. Paradoxically, a provision in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 –​which restricted application of the tax exemption to circumstances where the debt payment from private

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
Towards a third way and back?

7 The modernisation of German social democracy: towards a third way and back? Hartwig Pautz The German Social Democratic Party (SPD) has undergone a number of revisions since its birth in the nineteenth century. This chapter will explore the latest debate about what the SPD stands for. As a programme party, the debate about long-term objectives, values and ideological principles has been of particular importance to party members, its leaders and the public. Hence the focus of this chapter: it will document and analyse the programmatic discourse of the SPD

in In search of social democracy
Charity and the economy of makeshifts in eighteenth-century Britain

schooling generally promised recipients and benefactors long-, rather than short-term benefits. If the trustees are taken at their word, the children learnt how to support themselves in useful trades in the future. In the meantime, their parents or ‘friends’ kept them, with occasional provision of food and some clothing to offset the expense. But it was not only a question of what the Welsh Charity School, or indeed other charities, supplied to the poor; as important is the matter of how this system of material benefits worked. What were the contexts in which all sorts of

in The poor in England 1700–1850

thus forced families to fill the gap. Alternatively, poor law officials may have consciously restricted welfare supplies to force families to step into the breach. Or the poor law may have found itself as a fallback to kinship action, coping with extreme problems or reacting to short-term changes of circumstance which overwhelmed the coping abilities of kinship networks. Some guidance on how we might read the situation is provided 210 The poor in England Table 7.4 Kinship density and poor relief spending in six West Riding communities, 1750–1820 Place Otley

in The poor in England 1700–1850
The Marshall Plan films about Greece

moment in the long history of this relationship; they were part of one of the first post-Second World War audio-visual campaigns to promote a humanitarian cause at a transnational level. The Marshall Plan (MP) is the widely used term to describe the European Recovery Program (ERP), that is the material aid that the United States sent to the devastated economies of Western Europe to help

in Global humanitarianism and media culture

slow to adopt new marketing techniques or respond to consumer feedback with the result that Irish butter carried a mixed reputation on the British market. Cormac Ó Gráda concludes that Irish farmers ‘responded lackadaisically to the opportunities presented by the First World War’. 115 By the 1920s, any short-term gains won during the war dissipated. That decade saw a resumption of international competition between dairy producers as Irish farmers competed with new competitors. The introduction of refrigeration in the 1920s allowed New Zealand farmers to supply

in Civilising rural Ireland
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Life and opinions

he was twenty-eight. Special arrangements for ‘mature matriculation’, sometimes by examination and sometimes by interview alone, were made in order to accommodate candidates not equipped with the usual ‘A’ and ‘O’ level grades awarded by the usual public examining boards. In the fields of adult and continuing education, the University provided a great number of short courses, each lasting for a few weeks. Some of these led to certificates, but many were taken for interest and enlightenment alone, and some produced other kinds of result – for example, in successful

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90