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Civil wars in Georgia

Corruption breeds violence

Series:

Pavel K. Baev

could be as high as 20,000 (the lowest estimate is 6,000). While Abkhazia was the richest province of Georgia in the 1980s, by 1992 its economy had been weakened (there still were tourists on the beaches when tanks rolled into Sukhumi) and there was no local basis for sustaining the hostilities on such a scale. The external sources of support that Abkhazia was able to mobilise were only short-term which necessitated efforts to achieve a decisive victory. The deployment of Russian peacekeepers in July 1994 (about 3,000 troops) under the CIS mandate and UN monitoring (by

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The modernisation of German social democracy

Towards a third way and back?

Hartwig Pautz

7 The modernisation of German social democracy: towards a third way and back? Hartwig Pautz The German Social Democratic Party (SPD) has undergone a number of revisions since its birth in the nineteenth century. This chapter will explore the latest debate about what the SPD stands for. As a programme party, the debate about long-term objectives, values and ideological principles has been of particular importance to party members, its leaders and the public. Hence the focus of this chapter: it will document and analyse the programmatic discourse of the SPD

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Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

reported in 2012 that there were, at that point, twenty-​one NFL teams playing in stadiums built or renovated using tax-​free public borrowing. The accepted wisdom has been that these deals are good for local economies, and indeed cities have vied with each other to attract teams to their locality, despite evidence that the deals bring poor long-​term value to the communities and depress federal tax revenue. Paradoxically, a provision in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 –​which restricted application of the tax exemption to circumstances where the debt payment from private

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‘Agents in their own concerns’?

Charity and the economy of makeshifts in eighteenth-century Britain

Sarah Lloyd

schooling generally promised recipients and benefactors long-, rather than short-term benefits. If the trustees are taken at their word, the children learnt how to support themselves in useful trades in the future. In the meantime, their parents or ‘friends’ kept them, with occasional provision of food and some clothing to offset the expense. But it was not only a question of what the Welsh Charity School, or indeed other charities, supplied to the poor; as important is the matter of how this system of material benefits worked. What were the contexts in which all sorts of

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Sam Barrett

thus forced families to fill the gap. Alternatively, poor law officials may have consciously restricted welfare supplies to force families to step into the breach. Or the poor law may have found itself as a fallback to kinship action, coping with extreme problems or reacting to short-term changes of circumstance which overwhelmed the coping abilities of kinship networks. Some guidance on how we might read the situation is provided 210 The poor in England Table 7.4 Kinship density and poor relief spending in six West Riding communities, 1750–1820 Place Otley

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Classical antiquity as humanitarian narrative

The Marshall Plan films about Greece

Series:

Katerina Loukopoulou

moment in the long history of this relationship; they were part of one of the first post-Second World War audio-visual campaigns to promote a humanitarian cause at a transnational level. The Marshall Plan (MP) is the widely used term to describe the European Recovery Program (ERP), that is the material aid that the United States sent to the devastated economies of Western Europe to help

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Patrick Doyle

slow to adopt new marketing techniques or respond to consumer feedback with the result that Irish butter carried a mixed reputation on the British market. Cormac Ó Gráda concludes that Irish farmers ‘responded lackadaisically to the opportunities presented by the First World War’. 115 By the 1920s, any short-term gains won during the war dissipated. That decade saw a resumption of international competition between dairy producers as Irish farmers competed with new competitors. The introduction of refrigeration in the 1920s allowed New Zealand farmers to supply

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The students

Life and opinions

Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

he was twenty-eight. Special arrangements for ‘mature matriculation’, sometimes by examination and sometimes by interview alone, were made in order to accommodate candidates not equipped with the usual ‘A’ and ‘O’ level grades awarded by the usual public examining boards. In the fields of adult and continuing education, the University provided a great number of short courses, each lasting for a few weeks. Some of these led to certificates, but many were taken for interest and enlightenment alone, and some produced other kinds of result – for example, in successful

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Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

for the benefit of researchers on short-term contracts in the Faculties of Medicine and Science. Their position was becoming doubly precarious as the supply of lectureships dried up, and they longed for established posts and a recognised career structure. They now had their own professional body, ARMS, the Association of Researchers in Medicine and Science. Their local branch chairman, Dr Allison Keys, in the Department of Surgery, wrote in July 1983 that the previous year the Faculty of Medicine had contained 122 full-time and 12 part-time research staff on short-term

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Fantastically real

Reading Tomb Raider

Barry Atkins

large readership. This is not Dadaist poetry or the cut-up texts of William Burroughs, where the random juxtaposition of prose fragments produces the aesthetic product: one is always reminded that a coherent structure exists within the game-fiction, and that the inability to read correctly (most dramatically illustrated by the ‘death’ of the protagonist) is a consequence of a failing of reading. The presence of the ‘save game’ option, and its frequent use by players, indicates a recognition that it is common to read ‘badly’, at least in the short term, and that to do