Technologies and the Biomedicalisation of Everyday Activities: The Case of
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a majority of humanitarian
practitioners, we can define it as a commitment to three things: the equal moral worth of all
human lives (i.e. non-discrimination on principle), the moral priority of the claims of
individuals over the authority claims of any collective entity – from nations to churches
to classes to families – and a belief that as a moral commitment (one
that transcends any sociological or political boundary) there is a just and legitimate reason to
intervene in any and all circumstances where human beings suffer (even if
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell and Dónal P. O’Mathúna
Perpetuation: The Sociology of Disaster
( Lanham, MD : University Press
of America ).
H. ( 2017 ), ‘ International Aid
and Development: Hearing Multilingualism, Learning from Intercultural
Encounters in the History of OxfamGB ’,
Language and Intercultural Communication ,
17 : 4 ,
518 – 33 .
Golf is a major global industry. It is played by more than 60 million people worldwide, and there are more than 32 000 courses in 140 countries across the globe. Golf is a sport that has traditionally appealed to the wealthy and powerful in particular, though it attracts players and spectators from a wide range of demographics. Golf has also received criticism regarding its impact on the environment, particularly when it comes to the appropriation of land for golf course development and the use of water and pesticides in course management. The golf industry has, over time, responded to these and other concerns by stressing its capacity for recognizing and dealing with environmental problems. Yet there are reasons to be sceptical about the golf industry's environmental leadership – and, indeed, to be sceptical about corporate environmentalism in general. This book looks at the power relationships in and around golf, examining whether the industry has demonstrated such leadership on environmental matters that it should be trusted to make weighty decisions that have implications for public and environmental health. This is the first comprehensive study of the varying responses to golf-related environmental issues. It is based on extensive empirical work, including research into historical materials and interviews with stakeholders in golf such as course superintendents, protesters, and health professionals. The authors examine golf as a sport and as a global industry, drawing on and contributing to literatures pertaining to environmental sociology, global social movements, institutional change, corporate environmentalism and the sociology of sport.
This book brings together a range of sociologists and economists to study the role of demand and consumption in the innovative process. Starting with a broad conceptual overview of ways that the sociological and economics literatures address issues of innovation, demand and consumption, it goes on to offer different approaches to the economics of demand and innovation through an evolutionary framework, before reviewing how consumption fits into evolutionary models of economic development. The book then looks at food consumption as an example of innovation by demand, including an examination of the dynamic nature of socially constituted consumption routines. It includes an analysis of how African Americans use consumption to express collective identity and discusses the involvement of consumers in innovation, focusing on how consumer needs may be incorporated in the design of high-tech products. It also argues for the need to build an economic sociology of demand that goes from micro-individual through to macro-structural features.
Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.
Social mechanisms generating demand: a
review and manifesto
This chapter reflects on the development of sociological approaches to consumption and their contribution to the explanation of consumer behaviour.
Tentative and programmatic, it is concerned with defining some of the ways
in which sociology might proceed in analysing consumption. It offers some
record of recent developments and achievements. It is cast as a reflection on
the limits of a key concept, conspicuous consumption, arguing that sociological explanations have paid too much
most advanced to date in respect of
these goals, but it can be pushed further. Before taking steps towards a model of
inter-civilisational engagement in Chapter 4 and Part II, I reflect, in this chapter,
on competing paradigms. What can they offer in terms of the gaps identified
towards the end of the previous chapter, or indeed any others? The three competitors in question are globalisation analysis, Marxism and post-colonial sociology. How they can be situated in relation to contemporary civilisational analysis
is the work of this chapter.
The method here is to
Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making addresses debates on liberal peace and the policies of peacebuilding through a theoretical and empirical study of resistance in peacebuilding contexts. Examining the case of ‘Africa’s World War’ in the DRC, it locates resistance in the experiences of war, peacebuilding and state-making by exploring discourses, violence and everyday forms of survival as acts that attempt to challenge or mitigate such experiences. The analysis of resistance offers a possibility to bring the historical and sociological aspects of both peacebuilding and the case of the DRC, providing new nuanced understanding of these processes and the particular case.