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historicity of many Italian folk practices, and their rootedness in systems of social and economic oppression, these scholarly approaches, embedded as they are in Enlightenment discourses of progressivism, ultimately failed to address the spiritual meaning of the practices. I will argue instead for an experience-centred approach to folk practice that allows us to view it as an integral part of the individual experience of the

in Witchcraft Continued

couple was often tense and difficult, resulting in both tomboyish behaviour, and a refusal to recognise the boundaries set by others. It is clear that her childhood experiences also infused her with a powerful sense of self-sufficiency and a belief that she was the master of her own destiny. Knocker’s early life was one of impoverished gentility. Her adoptive father was a housemaster of a public school and, although she had 144 The war nurse as free agent been left a small legacy by her natural father, this was not enough to support a genteel lifestyle. She attended

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
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nineteenth century, and adopted Ford (a maternal name) as a surname in June 1919. Throughout this book, I have used Ford Madox Ford as his authorial name. 2 Isaiah Berlin, Four Essays on Liberty (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 1. 3 ‘Fragmentation’ in the catastrophist sense of the experience or perception (and thus representation in artistic terms) of disunity where there had been unity, but also in the sense of the experience or perception of new aspects of existence. See David Tracy’s article, ‘Fragments: The Spiritual Situation of Our Times’ in John D

in Fragmenting modernism

At a Conference of the Caribbean Artists Movement (CAM) held at the University of Kent in 1969, C. L. R. James spoke with typical energy of his experience of growing up in Trinidad. I didn’t get literature from the mango-tree, or bathing on the shore and getting the sun of the colonial countries

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
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French clerical reformers and episcopal status

In general, excepting Brémond’s indispensable study of its spiritual character, we know relatively little about this influential cluster of early dévots.7 It has been suggested that the coterie’s origins lay in the years following the religious wars when the failure of the League and the crowning of a former heretic as king of chap 2 22/3/04 52 12:12 pm Page 52 FATHERS, PASTORS AND KINGS France contributed to an acute sense of ideological and religious uncertainty among sections of the nobility who had supported the Catholic League. The Acarie circle

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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John Lydgate’s ‘Soteltes for the coronation banquet of Henry VI’

meditatio, ‘reading is memorized and changed into personal experience’, a practice that Mary Carruthers notes that Jerome links to consumption. Jerome argues that ‘Consumption of the book is the foundation of reading and the basis of history. When … we store away the book of the Lord in our memorial treasury, our belly is filled spiritually and our guts are satisfied’.23 Reading functions as an act of consumption that alters the formal materiality of the reader’s own body. By imbricating consumption with the ‘Soteltes’ objects and verses, the subtleties themselves become

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England
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Introduction Pastoral is one of the few literary modes whose genesis can be clearly traced. While poems reworking pristine rustic experience might have existed earlier, the pastoral mode as now recognized originated with the Greek poet Theocritus in the third century BCE. More correctly put, Theocritus provided a model that others followed to create the mode. There were few ‘others’ in Hellenistic Greece. A handful of poems, only one or two authentically pastoral, have been ascribed (often doubtfully) to two poets, Bion and Moschus. Of Theocritus’ own thirty

in Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance
Familiarisation and estrangement in Seamus Heaney’s later poetry

which he had grown up. His later poetry therefore reflects a new-found alienation from places and objects once imbued with the comfort of the familiar. His most recent volumes, Electric Light (2001) and District and Circle (2006), combine to present a complete cycle of organic familiarisation and estrangement. Electric Light witnesses a return to the mode of familiarisation. Prior to that volume, Heaney had spent three poetry collections and fourteen years perfecting a mode of writing originally developed in response to the experience of bereavement, a poetry whose

in Irish literature since 1990
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the position of its author, Rohinton Mistry, born in Bombay, now resident in Canada, but continually raiding the cupboards of memory for the dusty but tangible remnants of the India he has left behind. Yet the last sentence also suggests an increased vividness to the experiences of a childhood distanced by space as well as time: as if the migrant writer is empowered by that very geographical separation to fashion images with the sharpness of cut crystal, which will throw a new, diffused light on the familiarities of ‘home’, as well as on the peculiarities of

in Rohinton Mistry
Meanings, Limits, Manifestations

development of our selves. Such recognition ideally manifests itself within three central spheres of ethical existence: in the family, in civil society and in the state. In the family, members initially experience an undivided feeling of love which gradually becomes differentiated as self-consciousness matures into full personality. In the sphere of civil society, consciousness manifests itself in the

in Recognition and Global Politics