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agreement clearly voiced their dissent. During the period leading up to the end of the policy, new actors either started to participate or became more prominent in EU–Mercosur relations. This period highlights the differences of opinions and views among commissioners and among EU member states. It will be demonstrated that this lack of agreement could not sustain EU–Mercosur relations nor could it lead to the development of a clear and coherent EU strategy, and this affected the overall level of engagement. Exploring these issues between 1995 and 2004 is fundamental to

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Professionalization and post-politics in the time of responsible golf

and compliant way. In the final section of this chapter, however, we also provide a more critical assessment of the professionalization strategies described herein. We reflect especially on professionalization’s ideological function at this time: in positioning golf industry representatives as leaders in the environmental movement, professionalization tactics have served to elevate golf’s version of environmentalism to a ‘leading’ (i.e. hegemonic) position as well. We employ the aforementioned

in The greening of golf
Theories and evidence

reduction in wages), falling total factor productivity (again without lower wages), rising interest rates (in the context of the 1970s crisis) and production costs out of balance with wages that did not diminish sufficiently to sustain the stimulus to investment. These five explanations were not attributed equal importance. Factors such as labour rigidity, the collective bargaining model, which generated wage rigidity, and social subsidies (overly generous) were highlighted as having a greater 132 Making work more equal responsibility in generating high unemployment

in Making work more equal

3 The history and present of ‘Africa’s World War’ S The ‘failure’ of the DRC and the militarisation of peace peaking in 2010 of the International Security and Stabilisation Support Strategy (ISSSS) for the DRC, a MONUSCO officer argued that the escalation of violence in the Kivus over the last few years was caused by the DRC state being ‘inexistent’ (MONUSCO – ISSSS/STAREC liaison officer 2010). For this MONUSCO representative, some functions of the state did not work properly. So the task of international actors was to operationalise the state towards making

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Open Access (free)
Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?

points to the issue of sustainability. The DSI cannot and should not remain in Kosovo indefinitely. However, leaving institutions incomplete, in the dying months of the mission, is an ineffective manner in which to transform institutions. In order to create sustainable structures which have the full capacity to deal with smuggling and other related forms of fraud and crime, institutions require a smooth, coherent and stable plan with a rational and well-considered exit strategy. In the case of Kosovo’s customs services, it appears this issue was recognised and managed

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
A cognitive perspective

, however, multi-scaled: [I]n particular, continuity derives from sustained commitments to organisational strategies and heuristics that presumably involve higher-level cognitive processes in the individuals involved . . . In a still broader context, cognitive frameworks and paradigms are known as a source of long-lasting influence and continuity for both scientific disciplines and industrial technologies. (Nelson and Winter 2002: 32) To add a consumption perspective, I would include identity commitments and the cognitive frameworks constituted through quality networks

in Qualities of food

5 Crime, criminal networks and the survival strategies of the poor in early eighteenth-century London Heather Shore The poor in England Crime, criminal networks, survival strategies Introduction This morning one Rebecca Hart, a poor Woman belonging to the Parish of St. James’s, was committed to Prison for stealing several Quantities of Coals, the Property of Mr. Nathan Robley. It was sworn against her that she had declared, ‘It was no Sin in the Poor to rob the Rich; and that if it was, J— C— had died to procure the Pardon of all such Sinners.’ The Prisoner

in The poor in England 1700–1850

support of neighbouring countries’ invasion of the DRC in 1998–2003, the insecurity provoked by the different CNDP uprisings and the ongoing presence of foreign and national armed groups represent a continuation of the self-defence and liberation agenda. The strategies undertaken for surviving and confronting war are inseparable from the strategy of joining armed militias as a way of ‘reacting against their marginalisation and exclusion’ (Vlassenroot 2002: 150). The means used are largely conditioned by the historical moment in which actors are embedded. Nevertheless

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
New Labour and public sector reform

8 The meaning of modernisation: New Labour and public sector reform Eric Shaw Introduction If there is a dominant motif in Labour’s approach to the conduct of domestic policy, it is ‘modernisation’ – and its synonym, ‘reform’. No set of institutions were more frequently and in a more thoroughgoing and sustained manner the object of modernisation than the public services.1 ‘The reform of our public services’, John Reid declared, ‘is the crucible in which the future shape of the progressive centre-left politics is being forged’ (Reid 2005). It was, the Prime

in In search of social democracy

representatives, and their trade union leaderships. The British parliamentary State sustained the private rule of capital in the UK by drawing all these potentially oppositional social forces and political institutions into a form of democratic politics that left elected governments subject to the constraints of a conservative state apparatus and a well-entrenched business and financial class, and left their electorate subject to heavy ideological pressure from schools, churches and the media. The Labour ITLP_C05.QXD 18/8/03 9:57 am Page 74 74 The Milibandian perspective

in Interpreting the Labour Party