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Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg

responding effectively to flu pandemics. The WHO, Forster argues, should be better at addressing these matters, but as it is bound to ‘a reductive epistemology, and at the centre of an unreflexive, self-sustaining actor network’, 67 it cannot meet this challenge. In the Swedish authorities’ own evaluation, 68 the main conclusions were that Sweden was successful in its management of the pandemic and that the mass vaccination

in The politics of vaccination
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin and Steven Thompson

families, similar to workers and the poor elsewhere, drew upon a range of different providers in the mixed economy of welfare. Their choices, strategies and expedients varied from place to place and over time as resources waxed and waned, as their estimation of the social and cultural costs differed and as need and family circumstances exerted more or less pressure over time. Disabled miners were assisted in a variety of ways but they also suffered want, disappointment and desperation as providers failed to meet their needs or to sufficiently ameliorate the financial

in Disability in industrial Britain
Open Access (free)
The racecourse and racecourse life
Mike Huggins

only about thirty days of racing annually, of which Liverpool had ten and Manchester nine days. Horseracing was most popular in Greater London, which by 1938 sustained sixty-five days of flat racing a year, spread out over courses at Alexandra Park, Ascot, Gatwick, Hurst Park, Kempton Park, Lingfield, Sandown Park, Windsor and Epsom. Yorkshire sustained fifty days’ racing spread over eight racecourses. In both Yorkshire and the South no single course had more than eight days’ racing annually, partly due to Jockey Club restrictions, but also because few working men

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Robert Boyce

organisation in the Bordeaux region makes it more than usually difficult to be certain about the wartime events. But the evidence presented in the courtroom left little room for doubt that until the liberation of Bordeaux, Papon’s first loyalty had been to the Vichy state, which had mounted a sustained campaign to crush the Resistance. Other elements of his defence were comprehensively challenged. His claim that delegated authority carried with it no responsibility for the outcome, for instance, found support from only one other witness while being strongly disputed by

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
John Marriott

yet the History of British India falters on the matter of caste. Mill’s target was Brahmanism, which he considered a despotic system of priestcraft that had for centuries enslaved the Indian people. Ideologically, it was sustained by gross superstition, socially and politically by caste. In caste, he thus proposed, we have the key to understanding India: ‘On this division of the people, and the

in The other empire
Open Access (free)
Sabine Clarke

The most important firm in Britain in terms of producing fermented alcohol from molasses for the manufacture of chemicals was the Distillers Company Ltd (DCL). The success of DCL in producing power alcohol, industrial solvents and other products from molasses encouraged the Colonial Office to consider the potential of a market for industrial products derived from sugar in the early 1940s. Another legacy of sustained interest and activity in the field of power alcohols and organic chemicals during the interwar period was growth in expertise in organic chemistry and

in Science at the end of empire
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

social and community role, which was inextricably linked with its religious function.105 Remembering his nineteenth-century ancestors, the Yorkshire miner Jim Bullock recalled that ‘[f]aith sustained them in sickness and poverty when everything seemed hopeless. The fact that they could tell God their troubles, and firmly believed that God did hear them and did something about it made it possible for them to bear life’s hardships with patience and courage.’ The importance of the chapel, he concluded, ‘can never be over-valued’.106 As with other aspects of community life

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Patrick Doyle

The courting of sympathetic bishops remained part of Plunkett's long-term strategy. In a letter to the Catholic Bishop of Elphin, John Clancy, Plunkett argued that ‘the moral and social justification of the co-operative creamery is that its successful working calls for the exercise by the participants in the undertaking of certain qualities which we all wish to promote in Ireland’. 15 In making this point, Plunkett attempted to stress the interest that all parties, both secular and religious, shared in the spread of co-operative businesses. What Plunkett viewed as

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
black magic and bogeymen in Northern Ireland, 1973–74
Richard Jenkins

? Social science offers several closely related interpretive frameworks. For example, these events seem to fit the classic pattern of a ‘moral panic’: a period of sustained public discourse, created and dominated by politicians, the media or other moral entrepreneurs, which creates or dramatizes a particular public issue or problem. 19 Bringing the issue to prominence may resolve, redefine, or consolidate it. A

in Witchcraft Continued
Open Access (free)
John Toland and print and scribal communities
Justin Champion

texts into different social and cultural contexts. Toland developed an arsenal of different authorial strategies when writing for a print audience, including the presentation of scholarly apparatus, the appropriation of orthodox rhetoric, and the careful presentation of typographical style. The function of this variety of authorial personae was to attempt to engage with as many types of reader as possible, simultaneously. Insinuation, appropriation and ambiguity were strategies adopted by Toland to capture the reader’s mind and initiate the process of persuasion or

in Republican learning