, from this period, been feebler than the last ( Brenner, 2006 ). Recovery from the 2008financialcrisis,
for example, has been the weakest and most prolonged on record ( Streeck, 2017 ). Reflecting the realities of the downturn, the new freedom
to consume has, to a remarkable degree, been unequally distributed ( OECD, 2008 ; Oxfam, 2016 ).
Precarity is a by-product of the long downturn. It emerges at that historic moment when the
economy becomes a site of permanent emergency ( Streeck,
2011 ). A human surplus coexists with the ‘jobless’ growth