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Still unique or just one in the crowd?
Karen E. Smith

EUD4 10/28/03 2:41 PM Page 60 4 The ACP in the European Union’s network of regional relationships: still unique or just one in the crowd? Karen E. Smith This chapter analyses the European Union’s relations with five broad regional groupings: the ACP countries, the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. The Union prefers to deal with third countries collectively. It lays out regional strategies, sets up aid programmes on a regional basis and concludes specific kinds of agreement with countries in a particular region. The EU has important

in EU development cooperation
From model to symbol

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.

An assessment of EU development aid policies
William Brown

Bank’s policies largely reflect the orientation of the dominant Northern states towards the South, and as such are a good indicator of the wider political and policy environment within which the EU’s own development policies have evolved. Throughout, the chapter asks whether the claimed uniqueness of the original relationship with the ACP countries has given way to a more uniform stance among donors. If this is the case, then the raison d’être for a separate EU development programme may come into question. This chapter undertakes this task by assessing three phases

in EU development cooperation
The role of France and French interests in European development policy since 1957
Anne-Sophie Claeys

has to be accepted by qualified majority. This is a fundamental step within the project cycle. ACP countries usually tend to privilege their ‘boss’ for market attribution (Ravenhill, 1995). This kind of rebilateralisation of ACP–EU relations can be explained through clientelism (Ravenhill, 1995) or paternalism (Delphin, 1992). Power does not lie in the ACP–EU joint institutions but in Community bodies such as the Commission, the Council of Ministers and the EDF Committee, and also in the EC member states themselves. Thus the permanency of bilateral relationship

in EU development cooperation
Anna K. Dickson

EUD3 10/28/03 2:41 PM Page 42 3 The unimportance of trade preferences Anna K. Dickson In 1975 the EU operated a pyramid of preference in terms of market access and disbursement of development assistance to non-member states. The ACP countries were at the top of this pyramid, enjoying the most preferred status in the EU market for their exports, including duty free access for all industrial products and 80 per cent of agricultural exports. In addition there were special Protocols for bananas, sugar, beef and rum which guaranteed access to the EU market for

in EU development cooperation
Security and complex political emergencies instead of development
Gorm Rye Olsen

themselves, as such endeavours might contribute to the creation of a common European identity. As a consequence of both these purposes, European foreign policy initiatives towards Africa in reality would become symbolic policy. European development aid to Africa As outlined above, development aid is the first of three important dimensions to be analysed. This section presents the main changes in EU aid to Africa during the 1990s. As a starting point, there is no doubt that development aid was the most important policy instrument in Europe’s relations with the ACP countries

in EU development cooperation
Arantza Gomez Arana

1996; Ayuso 1996). This programme lasted for a period of four years and focused on non-associated developing countries and the distribution of funding, which was set around 75% for Asia, 20% for Latin America and 5% for African countries. When Denmark, the UK and Ireland became members of the EU in 1973, it prompted discussions about the EU’s external relations which had previously been ignored due to French pressure (Ayuso 1996; De Pablo Valenciano and Carretero Gomez 1999). However, pressure from the UK blocked the decision on the budget for ACP countries until a

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Bureaucratic politics in EU aid – from the Lomé leap forward to the difficulties of adapting to the twenty-first century
Adrian Hewitt and Kaye Whiteman

entry. Surprisingly, in the 1950s and 1960s (and by some even as late as 1972) Mauritius was seen as a hopeless case of a labour-surplus economy with a declining core commodity. In fact it used its European links more extensively than any other and Mauritius is currently referred to not only as a Lomé role-model but also as one of the few ACP countries (perhaps the only) really to have developed from the relationship. It is hard now to recall the curious political climate in Europe. De Gaulle’s celebrated ‘non’ to British entry of February 1963 (greatly to the

in EU development cooperation
From model to symbol?
Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson

:38 PM Page 2 Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson put forward by the Third World in its quest for a New International Economic Order (NIEO). Examples include the contractual approach, the non-reciprocal trade preferences extended by the EU to the ACP countries and the creation of a semi-automatic system of financial compensation for unstable export earnings from agricultural commodities and mining products, the so-called Stabex and Sysmin mechanisms (Arts, 2000: 127–34). The high hopes engendered by the Lomé Convention have not been realised. Lomé has not been replicated

in EU development cooperation
The impact of EU membership and advancing integration
Karin Arts

. Scappucci (eds), The European Union and Developing Countries, Houndmills: Macmillan. Byron, J. (2000), ‘Square dance diplomacy: Cuba and CARIFORUM, the European Union and the United States’, European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, no. 68, pp. 23–45. CEC (1996), ‘Green Paper on Relations between the European Union and the ACP Countries on the Eve of the 21st Century: Challenges and Options for a New Partnership’, COM(96) 570 final, Brussels, 20 November. CEC (2000a), ‘Communication on the European Community’s Development Policy’, COM(2000) 212 final, 26

in EU development cooperation