management during the first half of the twentieth century, this chapter extends recent discussion of how political, medical and popular lay agencies came to reread wide areas of governance and everyday life in psychological and emotional terms during the interwar and early post-war period.
Though efforts to constitute the ‘good diabetic’ were rarely based on systematic or academic models of ‘depth psychology’ such as psychoanalysis, they nonetheless constituted affective relations as central to human behaviour, and sought
R. A. Melikan
Pains and penalties procedure:
how the House of Lords ‘tried’
R. A. Melikan
In the summer of 1820, King George IV demanded that his government secure
the punishment of his estranged wife, Caroline, for her allegedly adulterous
behaviour. Ministers acquiesced, and introduced a bill of pains and penalties
to deprive the Queen of all royal titles and privileges, and to affect a divorce.
After lengthy consideration by the House of Lords the bill was withdrawn,
to the King’s annoyance and the embarrassment of his government. This
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
individual ‘to perceive and pay attention to
certain objects or situations’ and to ‘become
pleasurably or unpleasurably excited about those objects whenever
they are perceived’. These tendencies, which were
‘cognitive, affective and conative’, influenced the
development of individual subjectivity and character. 19 Any lack or
deficiency in particular instinctive drives would affect
the eighteenth century
to the rulers of the Communist party today? It is not just, of course, the raw facts
of what happened in the eighteenth century, the investment in flood control,
famine relief, orphanages and so on, but how these have been woven together
through successive interpretations into a coherent narrative that has symbolic
meaning to today’s rulers.3 And it is no less real for being symbolic. It affects
today’s policy stance.
It should be clear, then, that the way in which history matters is more than
as a series of facts and events in the past
narratives of a semi-autonomous economic sphere.
As a consequence, the task for historians was no longer simply to
trace the ways in which monarchs shaped commerce and finance.
Rather they needed to examine a series of complex and multifaceted
interactions between commercial and political spheres, each of which
could affect the other, but neither of which was necessarily dominant.
Over the longer term, however, a different approach to economic
affairs, albeit one shaped by Hume’s analysis, was to emerge. For
Hume, as we have seen, attempts to promote commerce by England
Can historians assist development policy-making, or just highlight its faults?
(Hall-Matthews 1996). The fear of aid dependence is still routinely used to justify
limiting interventions that would more likely foster independence.
Analysing different types and aspects of policy-making processes can only
benefit those involved in them today. When does strong individual leadership
help and when does it stifle creativity? What are the pros and cons of extensive
consultation? What affects the relationship between written guarantees and
material outcomes? Again, such questions can by no means only be answered by
historians, though they
In the 1980s, a number of neurologists and psychiatrists, including Andrew Lees and G. M. Stearn at University College London, the London psychiatrist Cecil Todes (who had himself developed Parkinson's Disease at the age of 39) and the Austrian neurologist Werner Poewe, expanded the idea of a pre-morbid Parkinson's personality.
The classic description offered by Todes and Lees in 1985 was that Parkinson's patients exhibited an emotional and attitudinal inflexibility, a lack of affect
classification was subsumed within a wider definition of
‘psychotic reactions’ in which ‘the
personality, in its struggle for adjustment to internal and external
stresses, utilizes severe affective disturbance, profound autism and
withdrawal from reality, and/or formation of delusions or
hallucinations’. 27 At the same time, it was noted that
‘the clinical picture may differ from
public censure and
This book then will attempt to probe the relationship between discursive
performance and political action. Despite doubt about whether the world of
ideas can ever affect anything beyond the text itself, it will be a premise here
that ideas were powerful instruments in the transactions of cultural politics in
the period. Whether by manipulation of conventional languages, thereby
altering the perceptions, values, attitudes and understandings of audiences
and readers, Toland’s writings and communications affected the durability of