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delimited policy field may affect the resources available and significant within that narrow policy field, resulting in change. The chapter also explored how ‘deep’ hierarchies have long been enacted –​and contested –​in the people-​to-​people politics of the region as well. Such ‘deep’ hierarchies involve identifying peoples or parts of the world as superior and inferior, such as ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ world. I have argued that many of the circumpolar development efforts of the 1990s were rooted in such deep hierarchy, envisioning Russia as in transition and the

in Arctic governance
Some questions for Rainer Bauböck

wanted to argue against global democracy on the basis of an empirical claim that the absence of exit is harmful to democracy, one would have to ask “harmful compared to what alternative?” For example, is it worse from a democratic perspective to have a democratic polity in which one can participate but from which one cannot exit or to have no access at all to collective democratic decision-making about important issues that affect one's life? If

in Democratic inclusion
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by governments that have been democratically authorized by their citizens. Just as a legislature needs to be exposed to the articulation and mobilization of interests inside its territorial jurisdiction before it can legitimately adopt a law that affects such interests, so it must expose itself also to external interests when adopting a policy that affects these. I suggest some institutional remedies for this problem that could help to mitigate it within

in Democratic inclusion

possible agenda must be included in the demos” (p. 22). 3 Taken literally, this would mean that the demos must be global in scope, since any decision taken by a less inclusive body is liable to affect the interests of at least some outsiders, and Bauböck recoils from this conclusion, arguing that democracy presupposes the existence of a plurality of bounded political communities. Nevertheless, he concedes to the defenders of AAI that “those whose interests are

in Democratic inclusion

require a supermajority for the bill to pass) over legislation that directly affects the interests of children as children. The inclusion of all voters acknowledges that the interests of children are not the sole domain of parents and that the vast majority of people stand in both general and agent-specific obligations of care towards children (e.g. older siblings, cousins, aunts and uncles, grandparents), while the limited number of reserved

in Democratic inclusion
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as a great buttress against public opinion and the much-feared ‘tyranny of the majority’. Mill made a distinction between actions that affect only oneself, which do not justify restrictions on them, and actions that affect others, which may need to be restrained by other individuals and/or the state: the sole end for which mankind are warranted individually or

in Understanding political ideas and movements

all of our decisions are likely to affect some foreigners, the set of foreigners affected by an environmental policy is likely to be different from a trade policy – just as these policies affect some but not all residents within the country – leading to ever-changing boundaries of inclusion on a case-by-case basis. In Bauböck's words, “letting affected interests determine the boundaries of the demos would create indeterminate or ephemeral

in Democratic inclusion
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Antinomies and enticements

approaching and modes of apprehending social worlds, they have appeared equally instituted as tissues of affect and textures of experience, intricately articulated (in inherently heterogeneous ways) with the production and meaning of space and time within everyday practices. And so, it should not be surprising that, their critical questioning notwithstanding, these oppositions continue to beguile and seduce. 30

in Subjects of modernity

addressed the problem of international conflict directly, beyond general statements about regional peace and cooperation. For example, Finland’s foreign minister addressed the geopolitical environment this way: the question whether and to what extent the strained international situation will affect Arctic cooperation can be answered in a positive tone and quoting our declaration saying that we are committed to maintaining peace, stability and constructive cooperation in the Arctic. It is in no-​one’s interest to let problems elsewhere to impact [sic] negative on Arctic

in Arctic governance
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Conclusion Masks and faces: what you see is what you get Shakespeare's King Lear appears to complain that the artefacts with which people clothe, house, and surround themselves conceal their true nature: ‘robes and furred gowns hide all’. 1 But the public performance is at least as real as any private one. It is conducted in relation to other people, and is the one which affects them and with which they have to deal. It is not secret selves, but active, overt, social selves that constitute the human environment. When Lear tore off his clothes he was not

in Cultivating political and public identity