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This text aims to fill a gap in the field of Middle Eastern political studies by combining international relations theory with concrete case studies. It begins with an overview of the rules and features of the Middle East regional system—the arena in which the local states, including Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Jordan and Iraq, operate. The book goes on to analyse foreign-policy-making in key states, illustrating how systemic determinants constrain this policy-making, and how these constraints are dealt with in distinctive ways depending on the particular domestic features of the individual states. Finally, it goes on to look at the outcomes of state policies by examining several major conflicts including the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Gulf War, and the system of regional alignment. The study assesses the impact of international penetration in the region, including the historic reasons behind the formation of the regional state system. It also analyses the continued role of external great powers, such as the United States and the former Soviet Union, and explains the process by which the region has become incorporated into the global capitalist market.

Constructing security in historical perspective
Jonathan B. Isacoff

and why this is the case, the chapter examines the specific discourses of security employed by opposing political groups during key periods in the history of the Arab–Israeli conflict. Turning to the Israeli case, it is striking how little the State of Israel in 2001 resembles the nascent state declared during May of 1948. Most of the goals of the first generation of state-builders – territorial

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Redefining security in the Middle East
Tami Amanda Jacoby and Brent E. Sasley

negotiations in the 1990s resulted from a series of international pressures and realignments. Along with the intifada , popular opinion in other Middle Eastern societies expressed an increasing dissatisfaction with the human cost of militarized conflict. The Madrid Peace Conference in 1991 was the first instance in which parties to the Arab–Israeli conflict engaged in direct

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Tami Amanda Jacoby

and of transforming the Jewish national character from a persecuted minority in the diaspora into a sovereign and independent majority in Palestine. The army was given a special role in the transformation of both the Israeli citizen and Israeli society ( Almog, 1993 ), and the process of state development. Over the years, the protracted Arab–Israeli conflict has effectively positioned the state and

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

, Israel was rejecting the latest bid for a negotiated settlement to the Arab–Israeli conflict. Taking advantage of the damage this did to moderate Arab leaders, notably Egypt’s Mubarak who promoted his role as Arab-Israeli interlocutor, Saddam proposed a confrontational stand against Israel’s American backer, urging the use of the oil weapon, and, in response to Israeli threats, warning that he would burn half of Israel (with chemically armed missiles) if it attacked any Arab country. The enthusiastic mass response to this strengthened and emboldened Saddam. But his

in The international politics of the Middle East
Brent E. Sasley

societal (and social) security and political rights were generally either ignored by Arab regimes or, more commonly, placated by focusing on external adventures or foreign policy goals, thus deflecting attention from the regimes’ failures to achieve economic, social and political expectations. The Arab–Israeli conflict, in particular, was a ‘stopgap, legitimacy-rich mechanism’ ( Sela, 1998 : 27), but other

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

policies resembling classic reason of state and directed chiefly at perceived external threats. This unevenness of state formation, issuing from the earlier independence of Turkey and the transplant of a mobilised Zionism into the region meant the Arab states confronted much stronger non-Arab opponents. Stage 2: Preconsolidation praetorianism and divergent paths: revolutionary republics, traditional survival (1949–70) The Palestine War, the struggle to throw off imperialism and the Arab-Israeli conflict rapidly accelerated

in The international politics of the Middle East
Explaining foreign policy variation
Raymond Hinnebusch

in an equitable resolution of the Arab–Israeli conflict made them interdependent. Oil and state consolidation Oil gave impetus to the consolidation of both states. Oil revenues radically increased the Saudi regime’s autonomy of society, whose taxes it no longer needed. At the same time, the centralisation and bureaucratisation of the state enabled the al-Saud to subordinate autonomous social forces. The once autonomous Hijazi merchants were absorbed into corporatist relations with the bureaucracy; the ulama lost their

in The international politics of the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

war. The failure of order-building efforts to address these war-inducing factors means the Middle East has been immune to the spread of the ‘zone of peace’. The emergence of a Middle East system Built-in irredentism: origins of the Arab–Israeli conflict The irredentism built into the flawed states system imposed on the region after World War I was epitomised by the conflict over Palestine, perhaps the single factor which has most profoundly shaped Middle East international politics. This conflict

in The international politics of the Middle East
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

deployed outside the Soviet Bloc. Israel, realising the magnitude of the Soviet involvement, stopped the deep penetration bombing. To defuse the situation, the US, in the Rogers Plan, proposed a ceasefire and a broader settlement of the Arab–Israeli conflict. Nasser’s internationalisation of the conflict did not, however, break the occupation stalemate (Evron 1973: 96–101, 185–6; Riad 1982: 103–7; Smith 1996: 217–20; Walt 1987: 108–10). Meanwhile, indeed, the US relationship with Israel grew ever closer despite certain conflicts of interest between

in The international politics of the Middle East