counterparts with similar family histories of migration, who are persistently required to prove their belonging.’ The destruction of landing cards led to the total infringement of citizenship because racialised citizenship was embedded within British citizenship legislation and practices by the authorities. At the time when the Windrush generation arrived in the UK, they did not nominally cross any borders of the BritishEmpire: yet it was the change in the citizenship regime and subsequent practices of the state that rendered them ‘illegal immigrants’ and caused the total
early 1990s were exciting times to conduct
research in Cambridge, and my own work took forward some of the
concerns arising from the writings of C. A. Bayly as well as
profiting from conversations with Ajay Skaria on archival work and
fieldwork, history and anthropology. C. A.
Bayly , Indian Society and the Making of the BritishEmpire
( Cambridge : Cambridge