features that are genetically inherited. It is thus a
‘given’ set of physical characteristics that cannot be changed.
It does not automatically follow that a sense of racial hierarchy should
lead to eugenics, euthanasia or genocide (after all, racism was a key
ideological feature of the BritishEmpire), but racial hatred was a major
feature of Nazism and most modern fascist movements.
Nationality, however, is in
Irish co-operative movement. Horace Plunkett died in Surrey in March 1932, but lived to see the movement he created leave an extraordinary impact upon his home country. Throughout his final years, he remained in touch with the movement he founded as President of the IAOS but his interest shifted to mainstreaming agricultural co-operation across the globe. He organised a conference in July 1924 that gathered delegates from across the BritishEmpire to discuss how agricultural co-operation might be promoted as a solution to problems of underdevelopment elsewhere. He
incorporation of immigrants in Western nation-states. In
fact, the concept first appeared in the vocabulary of the BritishEmpire after the loss of the American colonies, when officers in
London decided to tighten the reins on their subjects in the rest of
the empire. It is also worth recalling that the defeat of the
British in the American War and the Declaration of Independence of
the Arctic region, largely
through scientific and military endeavours (Wråkberg, 2013).
The nineteenth and twentieth centuries also saw a new phase of
exploration in conversation with the State more directly, rather than the
broad consortiums representing various economic interests that drove
previous phases of exploration. Sir John Franklin, and later Fridtjof
Nansen, Roald Amundsen and Robert Peary are prominent names in this
regard. For example, Franklin’s journeys with the Erebus and Terror in
1845 were motivated in part by the Britishempire’s naval strength
13 Patricia Clavin, Securing the World's Economy: The Reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920–1946 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
14 UN Secretary-General, Co-operatives in Social Development .
15 Akhil Gupta, Postcolonial Developments: Agriculture in the Making of Modern India (London: Duke University Press, 1998), 38.
16 Rita Rhodes, Empire and Co-operation: How the BritishEmpire used Co-operatives in its Development Strategies, 1900–1970 (Edinburgh: John Donald, 2012
after that with the decline in gold mining and the constriction of demand
for indentured Chinese labour. Indian migration continued unabated, however. Somewhere between thirty and forty million Indians were recruited
to other parts of the BritishEmpire between 1830 and the First World War
(Castles et al., 2014: 88–9). The decline of Indian industry in the face of
favoured British imports created adverse conditions that pushed labourers
overseas. Japanese labourers exported, in effect, to Hawaii, Peru and Brazil
formed hybrid communities. Longer
Empire and International Relations in Nineteenth-Century Political Thought
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 118. See also E. P. Sullivan,
‘Liberalism and Imperialism: J. S. Mill’s Defense of the BritishEmpire’, Journal of the History of Ideas , 44 (1983), 599,
605–17; B. Jahn, ‘Barbarian Thoughts: Imperialism in the Philosophy
of John Stuart Mill’, Review of International Studies , 31 (2005),
Nationalism and the end of empires and multinational
Nationalism played a crucial role in
the overthrow of the European empires. Canada, the USA, Australia, New
Zealand, all nurtured a sense of national identity even when they were part of the BritishEmpire, eventually leading to their independence. In Africa and Asia,
Western-educated nationalist elites
accepted by most people in the Protestant nations of England, Scotland and
Wales, and the Protestant ‘British’ of Ireland; but never so by
the Catholic Irish to the same degree. Nevertheless, ‘British’ and
‘Britishness’ were useful notions for uniting the peoples of the
British Isles, who then directed their aggression overseas and created the
BritishEmpire. With the development of ‘popular’ imperialism,
associated with the
(Mancke, 1999: 230; Paine, 2013: 454).
The Omani relationship with the British bears this point out. British agents
were increasingly prominent in the Arabian Gulf and were able to funnel intelligence on Oman back to London. Knowing the empire well, the British were
on a solid footing to negotiate with the Omani sovereign. Britain’s growing support for the abolition of slavery in international trade put it at odds with the
slaving Omani Empire. While high officials of the BritishEmpire walked a difficult diplomatic tightrope in negotiations with other powers about