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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

features that are genetically inherited. It is thus a ‘given’ set of physical characteristics that cannot be changed. It does not automatically follow that a sense of racial hierarchy should lead to eugenics, euthanasia or genocide (after all, racism was a key ideological feature of the British Empire), but racial hatred was a major feature of Nazism and most modern fascist movements. Nationality, however, is in

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Patrick Doyle

Irish co-operative movement. Horace Plunkett died in Surrey in March 1932, but lived to see the movement he created leave an extraordinary impact upon his home country. Throughout his final years, he remained in touch with the movement he founded as President of the IAOS but his interest shifted to mainstreaming agricultural co-operation across the globe. He organised a conference in July 1924 that gathered delegates from across the British Empire to discuss how agricultural co-operation might be promoted as a solution to problems of underdevelopment elsewhere. He

in Civilising rural Ireland
Volker M. Heins

incorporation of immigrants in Western nation-states. In fact, the concept first appeared in the vocabulary of the British Empire after the loss of the American colonies, when officers in London decided to tighten the reins on their subjects in the rest of the empire. It is also worth recalling that the defeat of the British in the American War and the Declaration of Independence of

in Recognition and Global Politics
New stories on rafted ice
Elana Wilson Rowe

the Arctic region, largely through scientific and military endeavours (Wråkberg, 2013). The nineteenth and twentieth centuries also saw a new phase of exploration in conversation with the State more directly, rather than the broad consortiums representing various economic interests that drove previous phases of exploration. Sir John Franklin, and later Fridtjof Nansen, Roald Amundsen and Robert Peary are prominent names in this regard. For example, Franklin’s journeys with the Erebus and Terror in 1845 were motivated in part by the British empire’s naval strength

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Patrick Doyle

). 13 Patricia Clavin, Securing the World's Economy: The Reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920–1946 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). 14 UN Secretary-General, Co-operatives in Social Development . 15 Akhil Gupta, Postcolonial Developments: Agriculture in the Making of Modern India (London: Duke University Press, 1998), 38. 16 Rita Rhodes, Empire and Co-operation: How the British Empire used Co-operatives in its Development Strategies, 1900–1970 (Edinburgh: John Donald, 2012

in Civilising rural Ireland
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds
Jeremy C.A. Smith

slowed dramatically after that with the decline in gold mining and the constriction of demand for indentured Chinese labour. Indian migration continued unabated, however. Somewhere between thirty and forty million Indians were recruited to other parts of the British Empire between 1830 and the First World War (Castles et  al., 2014:  88–​9). The decline of Indian industry in the face of favoured British imports created adverse conditions that pushed labourers overseas. Japanese labourers exported, in effect, to Hawaii, Peru and Brazil formed hybrid communities. Longer

in Debating civilisations
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

: Empire and International Relations in Nineteenth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 118. See also E. P. Sullivan, ‘Liberalism and Imperialism: J. S. Mill’s Defense of the British Empire’, Journal of the History of Ideas , 44 (1983), 599, 605–17; B. Jahn, ‘Barbarian Thoughts: Imperialism in the Philosophy of John Stuart Mill’, Review of International Studies , 31 (2005), 599

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

national aspirations. Nationalism and the end of empires and multinational states Nationalism played a crucial role in the overthrow of the European empires. Canada, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, all nurtured a sense of national identity even when they were part of the British Empire, eventually leading to their independence. In Africa and Asia, Western-educated nationalist elites

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

accepted by most people in the Protestant nations of England, Scotland and Wales, and the Protestant ‘British’ of Ireland; but never so by the Catholic Irish to the same degree. Nevertheless, ‘British’ and ‘Britishness’ were useful notions for uniting the peoples of the British Isles, who then directed their aggression overseas and created the British Empire. With the development of ‘popular’ imperialism, associated with the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Seas, oceans and civilisations
Jeremy C.A. Smith

(Mancke, 1999: 230; Paine, 2013: 454). The Omani relationship with the British bears this point out. British agents were increasingly prominent in the Arabian Gulf and were able to funnel intelligence on Oman back to London. Knowing the empire well, the British were on a solid footing to negotiate with the Omani sovereign. Britain’s growing support for the abolition of slavery in international trade put it at odds with the slaving Omani Empire. While high officials of the British Empire walked a difficult diplomatic tightrope in negotiations with other powers about

in Debating civilisations