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Imaginaries, power, connected worlds
Jeremy C.A. Smith

slowed dramatically after that with the decline in gold mining and the constriction of demand for indentured Chinese labour. Indian migration continued unabated, however. Somewhere between thirty and forty million Indians were recruited to other parts of the British Empire between 1830 and the First World War (Castles et  al., 2014:  88–​9). The decline of Indian industry in the face of favoured British imports created adverse conditions that pushed labourers overseas. Japanese labourers exported, in effect, to Hawaii, Peru and Brazil formed hybrid communities. Longer

in Debating civilisations
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

: Empire and International Relations in Nineteenth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 118. See also E. P. Sullivan, ‘Liberalism and Imperialism: J. S. Mill’s Defense of the British Empire’, Journal of the History of Ideas , 44 (1983), 599, 605–17; B. Jahn, ‘Barbarian Thoughts: Imperialism in the Philosophy of John Stuart Mill’, Review of International Studies , 31 (2005), 599

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Seas, oceans and civilisations
Jeremy C.A. Smith

(Mancke, 1999: 230; Paine, 2013: 454). The Omani relationship with the British bears this point out. British agents were increasingly prominent in the Arabian Gulf and were able to funnel intelligence on Oman back to London. Knowing the empire well, the British were on a solid footing to negotiate with the Omani sovereign. Britain’s growing support for the abolition of slavery in international trade put it at odds with the slaving Omani Empire. While high officials of the British Empire walked a difficult diplomatic tightrope in negotiations with other powers about

in Debating civilisations
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

imperialist project. 25 Jennifer Pitts mentions only two alternative thinkers in nineteenth-century Britain critical of British imperialism: the linguist Henry Stanley and the polymath Francis Newman (brother of the famous cardinal Newman). 26 But the most widely known liberal critics of the British Empire were Richard Cobden, John Bright and Herbert Spencer. 27 In France, Gaston Jèze and Charles Solomon were critical of colonial rule but they did not

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Association and distinction in politics and religion
Rodney Barker

Norman French who seized power in England in 1066 felt no desire or need to amend their language or culture to that of those whom they now ruled, or to transform the language or culture of their subjects. The practice of the British Empire in India, by contrast, illustrates a very different, if complex and uncertain, relation between a ruling and a ruled culture. In mobilised societies rulers must be sufficiently like those whom they govern not to appear alien, but unlike them sufficiently to be justified in being in command. They need, in order to

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)
Rodney Barker

of universal essences) not only because its geographical extent has fluctuated, but because it gradually acquired, and then lost, an empire. The pageantry of empire, and particularly the pageantry of Indian empire, was distinct and spectacular. Between the two world wars Edwin Lutyens created splendid architectural images for the British Empire in India long after the imperial crown had ceased to exercise political rule. At the same time, a relationship between government and governed which for most people most of the time had been local and parochial was slowly

in Cultivating political and public identity