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Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

crisis was framed very much in terms of (anti-)colonialism. Irish missionaries, in particular, liked to frame what was happening to the Biafrans as akin to what the Irish had experienced in the British Empire. The spectre of famine was particularly significant in this respect. The phrase ‘The Great Hunger’ – which had been popularised as the title of Cecil Woodham-Smith’s hugely successful 1962 book – was used repeatedly by Irish missionaries and NGOs in relation to Biafra

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Rhiannon Vickers

’s foreign policy in terms of a missed opportunity and even a betrayal of the left. This viewpoint can be found in the work of Saville, Schneer and Weiler.9 This chapter tries to retain a balance between the two approaches, a difficult task made harder by the fact that only a selection of issues can possibly be covered in an overview of this nature. The chapter focuses on two major areas of foreign policy: first, the withdrawal and consolidation of the British empire; and second, the Anglo-American relationship and the emergence of the Cold War. It also outlines the

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Rhiannon Vickers

of Nonconformist religious Vic02 10/15/03 2:10 PM Page 35 MAIN POLITICAL INFLUENCES 35 origins.’5 It believed strongly in international and working-class solidarity, and saw the British empire as exploitative. For the ILP, domestic and foreign policy were parts of a whole, with social reform at home requiring the projection of democratic ideals abroad. It was largely pacifist, believed in international co-operation, was against overt militarism and war, and believed that an end to secret diplomacy could mean an end to international conflict.6 Both Kenneth O

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

features that are genetically inherited. It is thus a ‘given’ set of physical characteristics that cannot be changed. It does not automatically follow that a sense of racial hierarchy should lead to eugenics, euthanasia or genocide (after all, racism was a key ideological feature of the British Empire), but racial hatred was a major feature of Nazism and most modern fascist movements. Nationality, however, is in

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Neil McNaughton

Racial issues and the multicultural society 107 promised good wages, decent housing and guaranteed employment. Many thousands took up the offer. Immigration from the West Indies has continued ever since, though strict quotas have been set and the cash incentives no longer exist. The second wave of immigrants arrived in the 1960s and 1970s. These were of Asian descent, either from India and Pakistan (later also Bangladesh), former members of the British empire and therefore British passport holders. In addition to these economic migrants seeking a better life, there

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
Peter Calvert

was a pioneer of Imperial history; he is best known today for his remark that the British Empire had been acquired ‘in a fit of absence of mind’. For Seeley the main concern of history was with politics: ‘History is past politics: politics is present history’ (cited in Burke 1991: 3). In fact, in his inaugural lecture he rather surprisingly called for Cambridge to teach political science – an excellent idea that was not to be heeded for nearly a century. The multi-volume A Short History of the English People by J. R. Green (1893) is important because in it he turned

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Neil McNaughton

of the British Empire was now under way, so this represented less of a tie than before. Furthermore, Macmillan had become aware that Britain was not the world power it had once been. He managed to persuade a sceptical Conservative party that an application should be made. Negotiations began in 1961, only two years after EFTA had come into existence. Three major obstacles existed which were likely to prevent British entry. They were: 1 French President Charles de Gaulle, a vehement nationalist, was determined that France should dominate the Community. If Britain

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
Rhiannon Vickers

of man. This led to a concern with imperialism and of conditions in the British empire and, at times, support for nationalist movements and for national self-determination, which was often at odds with Labour’s belief in Britain’s continuing world and imperial role. Indeed, Labour’s policy on colonial affairs was usually confused and inconsistent. Within the Labour Party there have always been divisions over how these internationalist principles should be interpreted, which of these principles should be prioritised and which of these principles were achievable in

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Open Access (free)
The emergence of the British Labour Party
Rhiannon Vickers

, at a time when steel production was the best single indicator of industrial power and hence of military potential.6 The USA, Germany and France were all expanding their naval capabilities. In addition, Britain had a relatively small standing army, at a time when armies were gaining in importance relative to naval power with the opportunities provided by the opening up of vast tracks of land through the development of the railway. For example, Russia expanded its standing army from 647,000 in 1890, to 1,119,000 in 1900, whereas the whole of the British empire

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Volker M. Heins

incorporation of immigrants in Western nation-states. In fact, the concept first appeared in the vocabulary of the British Empire after the loss of the American colonies, when officers in London decided to tighten the reins on their subjects in the rest of the empire. It is also worth recalling that the defeat of the British in the American War and the Declaration of Independence of

in Recognition and Global Politics