-racialised formations of Othering and balkanism projected across the post-Ottoman space facilitate a similar assertion.
Another ‘symbolic’ postsocialist migration involves Chinese traders. Many ‘Chinese shops’ (‘kineške prodavnice’) have opened since the mid-1990s selling cheap clothing and household goods from storefronts that closed during the wars, or marketplaces or urban peripheries like New Belgrade's ‘Blok 70’. These have represented a new form of visible racialised difference in urban space and, for many post-Yugoslavs, another symbol in public discourse
civilisational hierarchies between their white, European nation and stereotypes of black, brown and Asian (or ‘Chinese’) peoples, supposedly unprepared for modernity. The politics of racism and peacekeeping in the Yugoslav wars exemplified how post-Yugoslav racisms mediated the geopolitical reversal that many ex-Yugoslavs felt they had undergone.
Racism, peacekeeping and international intervention
One ‘global’ racism in 1990s Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina channelled resentment that the humanitarian and securitising Western gaze had
What does race have to do with the Yugoslav region?
travelled through and settled in the region, among them Africans enslaved under the Eastern Mediterranean slave trade, African students who travelled to Yugoslav universities and Chinese merchants traversing postsocialist Europe; south-east European states' and individuals' global entanglements, especially at world-historical moments such as the Cold War or the present refugee crisis; the adjustments migrants from south-east Europe make to their new home countries' racial formations and how they themselves are, often ambiguously, racialised there; and the racial
Did this title symbolically cast satellites like East Germany as ‘sons’ of Soviet Russia?
Afghanistan, Burma, Cambodia, Ceylon, the People's Republic of China, Cyprus, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Gold Coast (soon to become Ghana), India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Jordan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Thailand, Turkey
University Press , 1993 );
Harootunian , Overcome by Modernity: History, Culture, and
Community in Interwar Japan (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press , 2000 ); Charles
Piot , Remotely Global: Village Modernity in West Africa ( Chicago, IL : University of Chicago Press , 1999 ); and Lisa
Rofel , Other Modernities: Gendered Yearnings in China after
India and China) had reached the ascending steps of
civilization yet lacked the critical foundations of reason. Still other
people (chiefly of Western European stock) had evolved to the higher
reaches of humanity through advantages of race and
rationality and propensities of history and nationality. Indeed, it was
the past and the present of this last set of people, comprising the
instance where restrictions on
citizenship create incentives for instrumental abuse by individuals: long-term
residents who decide to naturalize shortly before returning to their country of
origin in order to secure re-entry rights and – I would add –
diplomatic protection in their country of origin. Isn't the problem here that
the country of origin's non-toleration of dual citizenship and lack of
protection of human rights (China is the best