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M. Anne Brown

those Chinese pushing the limits and pace of reform (with other more or less repressive movements occurring in 1978–79, 1981, 1986, 1989 and 1998). But because of the very public ferocity of the government’s response, as well as the timing of the incident following some years of political openness and discussion within China, and at the beginning of the end of the Cold War internationally, the Tiananmen massacre also stands as a watershed. The massacre has etched itself sharply into Western impressions of and responses to China, on a popular level as well as in

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

those of European extraction, and treaties with states outside Europe (and America) were unequal, with the sovereignty and independence of the Ottoman Empire, China, Siam, Persia and Japan thereby limited. 13 Civilization linked with progress ‘became a scale by which the countries of the world were categorized into “civilized”, barbarous and savage spheres’, 14 a distinction adhered to by Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws , 15 which was common among

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Uses and critiques of ‘civilisation’
Jeremy C.A. Smith

colonialism. Terminological equivalents for ‘civilisation’ existed in Chinese and Arabic long before they emerged in European languages (Aktürk, 2009). Notwithstanding this longer history, etymologies of ‘civilisation’, ‘civilised’ and ‘civility’ suggest that the modern terms had origins in eighteenth-​century Western Europe (Febvre, 1973). ‘Civilisation’ and ‘culture’ were intertwined in their early discursive development in historically complex ways (Rundell and Mennell, 1998: 6–​ 8). The words were carriers for Western notions of tradition and modernity. Culture and

in Debating civilisations
Jonathan Colman

‘to find themselves involved with Indonesia at the same time as they are confronting the Chinese in Vietnam, and we are most important to them as a political and military buffer’. 17 On 20 May, Francis Bator of the National Security Council sent a memorandum to President Johnson warning that economic troubles might prompt the British to initiate ‘sharp changes’ in their ‘foreign political and

in A ‘special relationship’?
The promotion of human rights in international politics
Author: M. Anne Brown

This book argues for greater openness in the ways we approach human rights and international rights promotion, and in so doing brings some new understanding to old debates. Starting with the realities of abuse rather than the liberal architecture of rights, it casts human rights as a language for probing the political dimensions of suffering. Seen in this context, the predominant Western models of right generate a substantial but also problematic and not always emancipatory array of practices. These models are far from answering the questions about the nature of political community that are raised by the systemic infliction of suffering. Rather than a simple message from ‘us’ to ‘them’, then, rights promotion is a long and difficult conversation about the relationship between political organisations and suffering. Three case studies are explored: the Tiananmen Square massacre, East Timor's violent modern history and the circumstances of indigenous Australians. The purpose of these discussions is not to elaborate on a new theory of rights, but to work towards rights practices that are more responsive to the spectrum of injury that we inflict and endure.

Arantza Gomez Arana

countries had been successful. At the same time, a third major investor and trader became an important piece of the puzzle – China. To some extent this could be seen as a more promising context for reaching a successful agreement between the EU and Mercosur. The facilitator of the relaunching of the negotiations was once again the Spanish presidency of 2010. Since then, several meetings have taken place between the EU and Mercosur, the last one in Brussels in mid-June 2015. Throughout 2015, a new kind of scenario became possible – a two-speed type of negotiation: one with

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Arantza Gomez Arana

8 Lessons to be learned from the EU policy towards Mercosur Introduction Russia and China, as well as partners in Latin-America, deserve a clear European strategy. Africa has, unfortunately, been absent from the EU’s strategic agenda for years and needs to be reengaged … The Union can be a global actor considering we possess the objectives, principles and instruments. Unfortunately the political will is often lacking and the question is whether the EU Member States will take action to change this. (Moratinos 2010) The views of Miguel Angel Moratinos, Spanish

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Open Access (free)
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

and preventing destabilisation in South East Europe drove the action, states such as Russia and China saw the Kosovo conflict as an unacceptable violation of the FRY’s state sovereignty. The result was controversy and debates that simmer on today. These debates raised important issues about how the armed conflict should best be viewed. Was Kosovo a war, a limited war or something else? NATO’s military action best met the

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds
Jeremy C.A. Smith

to localised and autonomous coastal markets rather than a quasi-​imperial thalassocracy of controlled trade like the Phoenicians. The Romans more fully subsumed colonisation under the logic of warrior conquest. In turn, the long warrior and maritime empire of the Romans suffered invasions from Huns, Vandals and Goths. The Han Empire also bore incursions into northern China. Invasions weakened the dynasty, which, in turn, became vulnerable to internal rebellion. Dynastic decline resulted and the greater empire disintegrated into rival regions. On the other hand, the

in Debating civilisations
Eşref Aksu

Vietnam directed allegations against each other, and eventually, in December 1978, Vietnam invaded Cambodia. 11 The invasion took place in the wider context of the intra-communist political tension between the Soviet Union and China. 12 The Khmer Rouge were an ideological and strategic ally of China before, during and after their short-lived reign. Hanoi, however, was

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change