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Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

those of European extraction, and treaties with states outside Europe (and America) were unequal, with the sovereignty and independence of the Ottoman Empire, China, Siam, Persia and Japan thereby limited. 13 Civilization linked with progress ‘became a scale by which the countries of the world were categorized into “civilized”, barbarous and savage spheres’, 14 a distinction adhered to by Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws , 15 which was common among

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

and preventing destabilisation in South East Europe drove the action, states such as Russia and China saw the Kosovo conflict as an unacceptable violation of the FRY’s state sovereignty. The result was controversy and debates that simmer on today. These debates raised important issues about how the armed conflict should best be viewed. Was Kosovo a war, a limited war or something else? NATO’s military action best met the

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Eşref Aksu

Vietnam directed allegations against each other, and eventually, in December 1978, Vietnam invaded Cambodia. 11 The invasion took place in the wider context of the intra-communist political tension between the Soviet Union and China. 12 The Khmer Rouge were an ideological and strategic ally of China before, during and after their short-lived reign. Hanoi, however, was

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds
Eşref Aksu

and China had to be reckoned with. The main preoccupation of war-wary actors was maintenance of international peace and security. Protection of and respect for state sovereignty, and prevention of acts of aggression signified the most important ideational aspect of the new world order. The holocaust did no doubt preoccupy the minds of many, but the German and Japanese aggression in Europe and elsewhere was arguably

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Evolution of the normative basis
Eşref Aksu

constraints, collective expectations of UN peacekeeping remained unchanged. Maintenance of international peace and security and protection of sovereignty were the main prescriptions for the UN. With the replacement of Taiwan by China in the Security Council in 1971, the principle of UN non-intervention in domestic affairs, if anything, gained added strength. Even massive human rights violations, as in

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Open Access (free)
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, 18 illustrated the importance of effective media management in modern conflict and the consequences when this proved difficult or impossible. As the operation dragged on, NATO increased the numbers of aircraft and widened the targeting list to strike at the heart of the FRY’s infrastructure, government and media apparatus. By June 1999, it was increasingly clear that NATO would

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

, however, give authorisation on behalf of the Security Council or force its members to do so. The lack of explicit UN authorisation provoked serious opposition to NATO’s military action, not least among two of the permanent members of the Security Council; China and Russia. The Chinese Ambassador to the UN, Qin Huasun, described NATO’s military operations as a ‘blatant violation of the UN Charter, as well as

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

international community. The ICISS had suggested that the permanent members of the Security Council refrain from using the veto in such cases as long as their vital interests are not at stake but this was unacceptable to the US, Russia and China. 34 The first test case of R2P was the intervention in Libya. 35 Given the situation during the Cold War and the interventionism of the 1990s and the ongoing debate, the general impression is that humanitarian intervention is basically a recent

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

vanquished the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay (1 May 1898), business journals switched their position, pointing to the advantages of an independent Cuba. They toyed with colonies, an isthmian canal and US presence in the Pacific, the very ideas previously derided. The ‘fabled China market’ in particular loomed large, though some authors have disputed this. 47 The ‘glut thesis’ prevailed, namely that a surplus of goods was piling up in the US, which needed an outlet

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
A European fin de siècle
Sergei Medvedev

. So what was the outcome of the Huntington–Fukuyama duel? In general, Huntington’s argument was not fully relevant in Kosovo, where one could see a clash of ambitions and a collision of destructive policies rather than a genuine clash of civilisations. Everyone, including NATO and the Serbs, Russia and China, played by the rules of the global civilisation. National positions seemed to make little

in Mapping European security after Kosovo