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remained partly naturalists 10 and, more crucially, the previous universality of international law under naturalism is debatable, given the foundation of Christianity as a ‘limiting’ and ‘excluding concept’. 11 There may not be a proven causal correlation between legal positivism and Eurocentrism but there is an obvious correlation and interaction between them. 12 International law for most of the nineteenth century remained mainly the law between European states and

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Civilisation, civil society and the Kosovo war

the EU may try to redress this situation, but ‘Europe’ (as a civilisation) can never include the Slavs: ‘Europe ends where Western Christianity ends and Islam and Orthodoxy begins.’ 22 Huntington therefore suggests that EU membership will be awarded to states within the Western Christian sphere, but that the defining act of political organisation will be NATO enlargement: ‘NATO is the security

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Just war and against tyranny

nature’. 4 The Romans rendered the just war idea a clear legal theory, most of all Cicero, who maintained that there are two just causes for resorting to war: redressing an injury and repelling an invader, with peace the ultimate aim of war. 5 The early Christians condemned war as evil and opposed to the will of God. But when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Milan (313), a more positive stance regarding war was called

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
A bird’s eye view of intervention with emphasis on Britain, 1875–78

– his Catholic Christianity, his European sense, his Liberalism, his democratic sympathies’. 56 Gladstone in his pamphlet painted a bleak picture of the situation and of Ottoman culpability and added: ‘I entreat my countrymen … to require and to insist that our Government … shall apply all its vigour to concur with the other States of Europe in obtaining the extinction of the Turkish executive power in Bulgaria’. 57 He famously continued: 58

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Security, mobility, liberals, and Christians

liberal form, the security of Christianity relied on the preservation of the core values of a community of faith. To speak of a liberal or a Christian way of life is of course an intellectual generalisation (cf. Dillon and Lobo-Guerrero 2009 ). When what is taken to be a specific liberal or Christian life within a particular historical period and region is analysed in its details, it becomes possible to

in Security/ Mobility

Christianity, the alphabet and iconography) as well as the ancient Greeks. Co-religionism brought the support of the Russian Church and wide public support, even in rural areas, among the illiterate strata and peasants, something unique in Europe in those days. Furthermore, Greeks were very much present in Russia as prosperous merchants, educators and high-ranking civil servants, diplomats, military personnel and members of the aristocracy, several of them close to the Tsar and

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Between humanitarianism and pragmatism

elderly and priests, with various symbols of Christianity wrecked or downtrodden, such as the cross, the Bible, icons, church bells and so on. The image of the Turks (usually presented as very dark-skinned) was of ferocious men equipped with an array of daggers and swords. The captions were also very suggestive: ‘Turkish barbarities’, ‘Brutalities’, ‘The Balkan drama’, ‘Bulgarian village robbed by the Bashibazouks and the Circassians’. Noted artists also joined in, such as

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century