The emergence of bioethics in British universities
‘A service to the community as a
whole’: the emergence of bioethics in
Bioethics made inroads into British universities during the 1980s,
thanks largely to those individuals, groups and political changes
that we have already encountered. During the late 1970s and early
1980s members of medical groups and public figures such as Ian
Kennedy called for greater emphasis on medical ethics in student
training. They also stressed the benefits of ‘non-medical’ input,
claiming that it relieved clinicians from teaching responsibilities and
for healthy British women for the first time. This study was identical to the proposal pitched to the HSE (even down to the title), indicating that the statistician’s comments had perhaps not been so readily accepted after all.
The standards given in this study were replaced just four years later by the first European standardisation document pertaining to spirometry, which was issued by the European Coal and Steel Community in 1983, then updated in 1993. 83 However, by 1997, there was some concern that the impact of cohort effects (changes to people due to
.theguardian.com/inequality/2019/may/04/fitbits-nhs-reduce-inequality-health-disability-poverty . Accessed July 2019.
3 Fiore-Gartland , B. , and Neff , G. , ‘ Communication, Mediation, and the Expectations of Data: Data Valances across Health and Wellness Communities ’, International Journal of Communication , 9 ( 2015 ), 1466 – 1484 , p. 1469.
4 Crawford , K. , Miltner , K. , and Gray , M. L. , ‘ Critiquing Big Data: Politics, Ethics, Epistemology ’, International Journal of Communication , 8 ( 2014 ), 1663 – 1672 .
5 Chow-White and Green, ‘Data Mining Differences’, p
, and the boundaries between hearing loss and deafness changed with improvements to the technology.
Historian Michael Kay’s study of telephone use in the nineteenth century has demonstrated that the telephone’s broad inaudibility was one of the main reasons for initial widespread user rejection. 7 For anyone with less than perfect hearing the telephone was inaccessible. This came as a blow to many members of the Deaf community, who had hoped that it could be used like a hearing aid. 8 Subsequently, the first electronic hearing aids were indeed based on basic
society that they are in. This view falls in line with the ideology inherent to social model thinking about disability, a way of thinking which has had a dramatic impact in advancing the political rights of the disabled in Britain.
The UK activism that led to the 1995 Disabilities Act was characterised by its use of the concept of the social model of disability, which presented a dichotomy between the medical and social model of disability. In disability studies, the medical model represents the imperialism of the medical community over the disabled and its attendant
also as utilised in the prescription of hearing aids and, as I show in the section on ‘The telephone as hearing aid’, the interwar period featured an explosion of hearing aids based on telephone technologies, which led to the increased medicalisation of deafness as the medical community sought to temper the ‘quack’ hearing aids flooding the market. However, the medicalisation of hearing aids was no simple matter. Such medicalised prescription was complicated by conflicts over categorisation, the status of hearing aids as medical devices and the question of which
that disabled users ordered from hospitals often failed to integrate into their users’ lives and required individual adaptation and ‘tinkering’. Despite the wide acknowledgement of this tinkering in the disabled community in the US, respiratory technology designers did not advertise to users and the medical establishment ignored patient input in this arena. 117
In part, such individualistic ‘tinkering’ may have stemmed from the specific nature of individuals’ breathing preferences. While some users emphasised the greater portability and independence that chest
idea that the working classes should pay in to the system,
the various schemes that facilitated this in the community and the almoner who
policed it in the hospital, as well as the idea of opening up the hospital to
middle-class patients, were all inventions of the nineteenth century. Yet it was
not until the interwar years that any of them became the norm, or even
commonplace. In both principle and practice, the change brought about was more
complex than a
Colonialism and Native Health nursing in New Zealand, 1900–40
‘They do what you wish; they like you;
you the good nurse!’:1 colonialism
and Native Health nursing in
New Zealand, 1900–40
In 1911 New Zealand’s Department of Public Health launched its
Native Health nursing scheme, to serve the health needs of the local
indigenous population, the Māori.2 At that time the Māori population
numbered about 52,000; most lived in extremely isolated small communities and had much poorer health standards than non-Māori. The
circular announcing the scheme explained that the appointees would
The international growth and influence of bioethics has led some to identify it as a decisive shift in the location and exercise of 'biopower'. This book provides an in-depth study of how philosophers, lawyers and other 'outsiders' came to play a major role in discussing and helping to regulate issues that used to be left to doctors and scientists. It discusses how club regulation stemmed not only from the professionalising tactics of doctors and scientists, but was compounded by the 'hands-off' approach of politicians and professionals in fields such as law, philosophy and theology. The book outlines how theologians such as Ian Ramsey argued that 'transdisciplinary groups' were needed to meet the challenges posed by secular and increasingly pluralistic societies. It also examines their links with influential figures in the early history of American bioethics. The book centres on the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy, who was the most high-profile advocate of the approach he explicitly termed 'bioethics'. It shows how Mary Warnock echoed governmental calls for external oversight. Many clinicians and researchers supported her calls for a 'monitoring body' to scrutinise in vitro fertilisation and embryo research. The growth of bioethics in British universities occurred in the 1980s and 1990s with the emergence of dedicated centres for bioethics. The book details how some senior doctors and bioethicists led calls for a politically-funded national bioethics committee during the 1980s. It details how recent debates on assisted dying highlight the authority and influence of British bioethicists.