Tracing relatedness and diversity in the Albanian–Montenegrin borderland
dynamics of the
Ottoman–Montenegrin border that contributed to shifting identities, boundaries and allegiances among the local population. Local people found themselves
between the ‘soft’ margins of Ottoman rule on the one hand and, on the other, the
political strategies of the Montenegrin rulers whose goal was to shift the border in
their favour. Hence repeated border crossings, conversion to Islam or intermarriage
were common social practices in the Montenegrin–Ottoman borderland.
After having been marked – although still permeable and
Massacres, missing corpses, and silence in a Bosnian community
Mjesni odbor: Veliki Stjenjani, 8 August 1946.
9 Bibanović, Stanovništvo Kulen Vakufa, p. 129.
10 It appears that the Ustašas did not seriously begin to pursue a policy of
religious conversion until the autumn of 1941, once their more violent
policies towards the Serb community had provoked a Serb insurgency
that threatened the existence of the NDH. On the Ustaša policy of
forced religious conversions, see Mark Biondich, ‘Religion and nation
in wartime Croatia: reflections on the Ustaša policy of forced religious
conversions, 1941–1942’, Slavonic and
the conversion of this
minority group to Malayan citizens change how the Chinese viewed
their war dead? In the next section, we examine an exhumation conducted in 1982 to explore this question.
Parit Tinggi, Negeri Sembilan, 1982
Xiao Wen Hu was seven years old in 1942 when Japanese soldiers
arrived at Parit Tinggi village in Kuala Pilah district. The villagers
226 Frances Tay
were asked to assemble in a clearing, ostensibly to register for ‘safe
passes’. Unbeknown to the villagers, Captain Iwata Mitsugi had
received orders from Seremban Headquarters to conduct a
Madeleine Hurd, Hastings Donnan and Carolin Leutloff-Grandits
. With the changing political
order of Europe, these discourses also changed in content, yet without ever losing
their general moral tone in which ‘the West’ considered ‘the East’ as its dangerous,
Muslim-dominated antagonist. This notion fostered the establishment of a territorial border region within the neighbouring, mainly Christian-dominated Hapsburg
Empire, which acted as a buffer zone towards Islam and the Ottoman state while
simultaneously emerging as a frontier of cultural contact and tolerance, migration
and conversion. Such themes still resonate today and
Machines of mass incineration in fact, fiction, and forensics
Robert Jan van Pelt
-observance of religious law led
to a separation between an individual and the Jewish community.
These discussions acquired greater urgency in the Age of Emanci
pation, when it became possible for a Jew to fully participate in
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120 Robert Jan van Pelt
civil society without having to take the radical step of conversion.
Nevertheless, the question arose of whether there was a boundary
short of conversion that those born as Jews should not cross if
they were to remain acknowledged as Jews by orthodox Jewry. In
the early twentieth century