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Civil rites of passage

protagonists undergo a rites of passage or racial conversion. Most white directors and screenwriters espouse a liberal reformist vision in working out private salvations. But as Martin Luther King Jr. opined in Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community? (1967), liberalism can be ‘all too sentimental concerning human nature’, leaning towards a ‘false idealism’. Films made in our own historical moment

in Memory and popular film
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Pleasantville and the textuality of media memory

1990s, a sophisticated media genre. Dramatising the incursions of a colour present into a black and white past, Pleasantville creates a narrative based on the cultural apotheosis, ‘not everything is as simple as black and white’. Tapping into the spectacular growth of nostalgia networks on cable television during the 1990s, the film uses digital techniques of colour conversion to affect a political

in Memory and popular film
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Sarah Bernhardt, Queen Elizabeth and the development of motion pictures

scholarship that endorses this view. Charles Musser, in his article ‘Conversions and convergences: Sarah Bernhardt in the era of technological reproducibility, 1910–1913’, Film History 25:1–2 ( 2013 ), p. 170, cites Terry Ramsaye, Adolph Zukor, Geoges Sadoul, Robert Sklar and Eileen Bowser to support this same point. Further sources could be cited to confirm the criticisms made about

in The British monarchy on screen
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energy investment, and he is content to defraud the US Internal Revenue Service as part of the plan to repatriate Winnie’s trust fund to support the project. Even Gekko’s conversion at the end of the film, where he reclaims and assumes some responsibility for his new extended family and makes a long-​term investment in the energy research project, is the result of a piece of emotional arm-​twisting by Moore. In the original film, Bud Fox searches his soul and, with guidance from his father, finds atonement through judicial closure. In this second outing, James is

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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for the Iraq War, and his more formative years at Yale University, his aborted careers and later his conversion to aspiring politician and evangelical Christian. These flashbacks allow the audience to piece together the critical influences on Bush’s life and the ways in which they affected his approach to the presidency. In particular, Weiser and Stone kept coming back to this theme of a task left undone: a quest left hanging by the father for the son. Less conventional was the way in Lo v e which the flashbacks and Oval Office scenes were used to intuit a

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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the war on Stone was not some damascene conversion to liberal politics, but the germination of an angry disillusionment felt by many returning veterans from South-​ East Asia, exemplified in the 1971 march in Washington, DC by Vietnam Veterans Against the War.7 Having abandoned attempts to record his experiences on paper –​a task rendered impossible in jungle conditions –​Stone had taken belatedly to photographing the country as a personal record of his time there (Figure 2). The combination of his writing and the stark imagery that he managed to capture on film

in The cinema of Oliver Stone