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2 Forced conversion during the First Crusade Apostasy and Jewish identity Forced conversion during the First Crusade T he tendency that emerges from Rashi’s words reflects a decisive leadership approach, establishing a clear direction of attempting to return converts to Christianity to Judaism. The self-definition of Judaism its leaders sought to establish was that of a religion that felt confident in its ability to deal with Christian theological claims and in its political ability to deal with the threat of forced conversion. This situation changed during

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
‘Are you still my brother?’

In this study, the various aspects of the way the Jews regarded themselves in the context of the lapse into another religion will be researched fully for the first time. We will attempt to understand whether they regarded the issue of conversion with self-confidence or with suspicion, whether their attitude was based on a clear theological position or on doubt and the coping with the problem as part of the process of socialization will be fully analysed. In this way, we will better understand how the Jews saw their own identity whilst living as a minority among the Christian majority, whose own self-confidence was constantly becoming stronger from the 10th to the 14th century until they eventually ousted the Jews completely from the places they lived in, England, France and large parts of Germany. This aspect of Jewish self-identification, written by a person who converted to Christianity, can help clarify a number of

Open Access (free)
An introduction to his life and work

his career as a polemicist Cochlaeus forged strong relations among like-minded clergy, and attempted to create a powerful reactionary front among German Catholics. The movement included theologians like Johann Eck, patrons like the Polish archbishop Peter Tomicki and Duke George of Saxony, and printers like Cochlaeus’s nephew, Nicolaus Wolrab. But lack of funds and moral support, as well as the conversion to Lutheranism of some of his partners (Wolrab in particular 25), kept the conservative wing from acquiring the strength its visionary imagined. And preparations

in Luther’s lives

its cause, about twelve in all, and seven bishops were condemned for heresy by Rome in 1566.8 Some conversions and resignations were rather spectacular, attracting significant public attention both within and outside France, and included the notorious and tragic dilemma of Antonio Caracciolo, bishop of Troyes, who unsuccessfully tried to persuade both Geneva and his chap 1 22/3/04 12:11 pm Page 21 CATHOLIC RENEWAL AND EPISCOPAL TRADITIONS 21 disapproving flock that he could remain a bishop while acting as pastor of the local Calvinist, rather than Catholic

in Fathers, pastors and kings

danger to society. In this manner the manufacture of the myth of the deist movement had begun. The fate of Toland was not, however, unique. Others suffered similar ‘misreadings’, most famously the Huguenot Pierre Bayle. Bayle’s Dictionnaire historique et critique (1st edn 1695–97) was written and published in the same period of religious crises and persecution. Bayle not only had to flee religious persecution himself, but lost his older brother Jacob, a Huguenot pastor, who died in a dungeon at the hands of those seeking to bring about his ‘conversion’. His

in The Enlightenment and religion

–6. 62 Daily News , 13 Sep. 1882; Folklore Journal 1 (1883) 331. 63 Sebban, ‘La sorcellerie en Berry’, 150, 153, 158. 64 To gain an approximate conversion to new francs simply subtract a zero from the figure

in Witchcraft Continued
The Catholic challenge during the Thirty Years’ War

CATHOLIC CHALLENGE DURING THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR 119 Margaretha’s narrative was also an expression and dramatisation of the attempt which was being made in the Siechen Mill at the behest of her guardians to convert her, a baptised Catholic, to Lutheranism, and of her struggles to resist this conversion. In this sense, her narrative reflected in reverse the struggles of conscience which the Lutheran inhabitants of Gebsattel were being made to undergo by the re-Catholicisation programme started by the Bishop of Würzburg in the spring of 1627 and which continued throughout

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany

conversion to Christianity arising, not from the violent struggle of the Christians against Judaism but rather from their ability to persuade and to convince. The success of Christianity led to the phenomenon of Jews who converted to Christianity of their own free will, of a type whom the Jews could no longer label as ‘forced converts.’ During the course of the twelfth century we find evidence of such converts to Christianity in the Jewish sources. One such example appears in an inquiry addressed to Rabbi Ya’akov ben Meir, Rabbenu Tam (ca. 1100–71, Ramerupt, northern

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
Mirrors of French ideals?

would have great force despite their simplicity. Jesus himself, noted Camus, had used simple but effective words and images. If a bishop was personally pious, his faith would shine through his words and excite his listeners to conversion and belief.117 Here, authors scored a deep link between the personal episcopal virtues of piety and wisdom and responsible administration. The bishop’s example, the act of fulfilling his duty in obedience to God, was as important as the content of his teaching. Of course, it was naturally also desirable that bishops be knowledgeable

in Fathers, pastors and kings

This chapter enumerates the life and works of Dr Martin Luther, from the perspective of his lifelong antagonist Johannes Cochlaeus. It notes some peculiarities during his stay with the Monastery of the brothers of St Augustine, either from some secret commerce with a Demon, or from the disease of epilepsy; fraud after he was made Doctor in Theology; controversies in indulgences; and attacks he raised against the doctrine of the Roman church. It suggests that by his cunning, as he complained that he was unjustly pressed by his adversaries and driven into public, Luther gained the greatest favor for himself, not just among the simple people, but also among many grave, learned men, who believed in his words through genuine simplicity. Meanwhile, Cochlaeus, for the sake of asserting and confirming the truth of the Catholic faith against any heretics, also published several books in Latin, criticizing Luther and Phillip Melanchthon.

in Luther’s lives