Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

5 Everyday violence and Mai Mai militias in Eastern DRC What would you do if the state was a man? I’ll kill him.1 A From words to weapons lthough there were skirmishes, especially throughout the 1990s, Chapter 3 has already exposed how the first phase of the conflict was the defining moment in which the armed mobilisation of subordinate classes took place. The fact that the AFDL war was conducted under the guise of a national liberation movement and led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila succeeded in reviving the Mai Mai historical sentiment of fighting against

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

interdependencies – often invisible to the reader – that influence the accounts of such conflicts. 2 Drawing on my own experience as a journalist and independent researcher who has worked regularly – though not exclusively – in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since 2012, I considered the work of a journalist reporting on the DRC from four different perspectives based on: my experience as a journalist who wrote articles on armed conflict in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Debates Surrounding Ebola Vaccine Trials in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
Myfanwy James, Joseph Grace Kasereka, and Shelley Lees

deployed in North Kivu, a province in eastern DRC, which was in the midst of the country’s tenth Ebola outbreak, the second largest globally recorded. It was given to healthcare workers and contacts of individuals diagnosed with Ebola in the north of the province. But when cases continued to rise, the WHO urged that other vaccines be introduced in order to increase the number of people vaccinated and stop transmission of the virus ( SAGE, 2019 ). In 2019, a second trial (the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
Myfanwy James

actors so that NGOs can negotiate access to operate in the fragmented and shifting political landscape. The members of the Cercle represent the backbone of humanitarian presence in North Kivu. As one of the founders put it, we are like ‘fixers’ as well as humanitarians, and this is our ‘Congolese space of aid’. Although it does not feature in most official narratives, the ability of international humanitarian organisations to work in eastern DRC depends on this Congolese space of aid, which operates alongside the world of mobile foreign staff. This article explores

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Positioning, Politics and Pertinence
Natalie Roberts

, but an outbreak of Ebola declared in Equateur region of the DRC in May 2018 was considered its first real test. The DRC had already experienced eight previous Ebola epidemics, mainly small and self-limiting, but in Equateur the WHO, working jointly with the Congolese Ministry of Health, deployed at unprecedented scale when case numbers were still low, aiming to ‘go big and go fast’ to avoid the mistakes it had been accused of in West Africa

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editors’ Introduction
Marc Le Pape and Michaël Neuman

: they are examining how knowledge is acquired. The contributors to this issue represent different types of involvement: some of the authors were – and in some cases still are – engaged in humanitarian aid activities in Syria, solidarity, and human rights activities in Rwanda. Others have done fieldwork as researchers and academics in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Reporting from the field as a journalist is discussed with regard to eastern DRC. There is an historian’s approach to the Nigerian Civil War (1967–70), combined with analysis on the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell

centre, with knock-on humanitarian implications. In Kasai, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), competing claims over a particular chieftainship led to a rebellion which then fragmented and became a highly disruptive conflict causing significant loss of civilian life ( Maxwell and Fitzpatrick, 2021 ). The origins of Boko Haram in north-eastern Nigeria are comparable, with the added twist that militia groups were mobilised initially for gubernatorial elections

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith

conflict, and the historical and cultural contexts ( Chynoweth et al. , 2020b ). While reliable numbers regarding perpetration are difficult to obtain, evidence suggests that sexual violence is also perpetrated under many other circumstances. For example, in the current conflicts in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Libya, sexual violence against men and boys is sometimes perpetrated at the point of capture or arrest

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Caroline Abu Sa’Da, General Director of SOS MEDITERRANEE Suisse
Juliano Fiori

unlawful but European institutions are endorsing it. So SOS says: ‘No! Actually, according to international law, these are the obligations of states.’ It’s kind of a vigilante of the Mediterranean. Right now, my problem with NGOs like MSF and Save the Children and Oxfam is not what they do out in the field. It is that their staff generally don’t act as citizens. They go out to Uganda or DRC or whatever but they don’t engage with politics in their own home countries. Perhaps this is a result of the way NGO workers see themselves. My PhD research was

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Politics of Infectious Disease
Duncan McLean and Michaël Neuman

, the broad evolution of the HIV pandemic is charted: from early stigmatisation to multibillion-dollar funding to current ambitions of elimination. In pushing treatment as a means of prevention, large question marks are nevertheless highlighted, notably the sustainability and replicability of the project. Both the DRC Ebola vaccine trial and Ndhiwa ‘treatment cascade’ strategy were interrupted by restrictions imposed as a result of COVID-19. Lachlan McIver et al. contribute an editorial that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs