Cameron Ross

Federation. Indeed, forty-nine regions can be called purely Russian areas. In those regions, representatives of the ethnic majority make up 85 to 98 per cent of the population. The largest per centage of Russians in any region is now found in Tambov oblast (97.8 per cent).15 (5) The ethnic republics make up just 28.6 per cent of the territory and only 15.7 per cent of the population.16 Furthermore, of the twenty-one republics, the eponymous population comprises a majority in only seven; Chechnya, Chuvashiya, Dagestan,17 Ingushetiya, Kalmykiya, North Osetiya-Alaniya, and

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Cameron Ross

, and 10.4 times higher than in the Republic of Dagestan.25 In 1999 the average level of unemployment in the Russian Federation was 13.4 per cent but there were wide variations across the country ranging from 5.6 per cent in Moscow City to 31.2 per cent in Dagestan, 33.4 per cent in North Osetiya-Alaniya, and 51.8 per cent in refugee flooded Ingushetiya.26 There are also significant variations in the level of poverty across the Federation. In 1995 there were 51 subjects of the Federation where a quarter of the population or higher were living below the officially

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Crafting authoritarian regimes in Russia’s regions and republics
Cameron Ross

must not exceed two percent of the total number of voters’ in the electoral district where the candidate is standing’ (article 31.1).14 However, in the republics of FAD9 10/17/2002 160 6:03 PM Page 160 Federalism and democratisation in Russia Buryatiya, Sakha, Tyva; Stavropol¢ Krai, Orenburg and Tomsk Oblasts, electoral rules call for nomination signatures from 3 per cent; in Kurgan, Saratov, Chelyabinsk, 5 per cent, and in Dagestan and Kalmykiya, 10 per cent. The system of collecting signatures is often corrupt, with candidates paying for signatures with

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Regional elections and political parties
Cameron Ross

norm is somewhere between twenty and fifty for oblast assemblies, there are less than twenty deputies in the sparsely populated autonomous okrugs of Ust-Orda Buryatiya, Aginsk Buryat, Komi-Perm, Nenetsk, Chukota, Koryak and Taimyr. In order to increase their status a number of regions have created multi-member electoral districts. In the ethnic republics, which have no restrictions placed on the size of their assemblies, we find much larger assemblies, many with 100 or more deputies. Thus for example: Bashkortostan (190); Tatarstan (130); Dagestan (121); Udmurtiya

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Executive versus legislative power
Cameron Ross

appointed and dismissed cabinet members and other officials of executive power. However, in other cases legislative organs of power were required to give their approval for: chairs of the government (Adygeya, Bashkortostan, Dagestan, Ingushetiya, KarachaevoCherkesiya, Tatarstan, Mordoviya, Sakha, North Osetiya-Alaniya), first deputy and/or deputy chiefs of executive power (Irkutsk, Saratov, Karachaevo-Cherkessiya, Kareliya, Sakha, Tyva, Tambov oblast), all members of the government, ministers, and leaders of state committees (Altai, Buryatiya, Tatarstan, Marii El

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Cameron Ross

.1 Dates of declarations of sovereignty Republic Date of declaration of sovereignty North OsetiyaAlaniya Kareliya Khakassiya Komi Tatarstan Udmurtiya Sakha (Yakutiya) Buryatiya Bashkortostan Kalmykiya Marii El Chuvashiya Gorno-Altai Tuva KarachaiCherkessiya ChechenoIngushetiya Mordova Kabardino-Balkariya Dagestan Adygeya July 20, 1990 August 9, 1990 August 15, 1990 August 29, 1990 August 30, 1990 September 20, 1990 September 27, 1990 October 8, 1990 October 11, 1990 October 18, 1990 October 22, 1990 October 24, 1990 October 25, 1990 November 1, 1990 November 17, 1990

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Cameron Ross

not contradict the Constitution’. FAD3 10/17/2002 5:42 PM Page 37 Federalism and constitutional asymmetry 37 But these provisions are simply ignored in a number of republican constitutions which defiantly proclaimed the supremacy of their constitutions over the Federal Constitution (e.g., article 7 of the Constitution of Sakha, article 15 of Bashkortostan, article 1 of Tyva, article 1 of Dagestan, and article 7 of Komi).24 Article 1 of Tyva’s Constitution stated that at times of political or state crisis in the republic, the Republic’s Constitution was to

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
Cameron Ross

Representative: Army General Viktor Kazantsev. District capital: Rostov-on-Don. Republics of Adygeya, Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Karachaevo-Cherkessia and North Ossetia; Krasnodar and Stavropol Krais; and Astrakhan, Rostov and Volgograd oblasts. Urals District Presidential Representative: Colonel-General (Police) Peter Latyshev. District capital: Yekaterinburg. Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Sverdlovsk and Tyumen oblasts; and the Khanty-Mansii and Yamal-Nenets autonomous okrugs. Volga District Presidential Representative: Sergei Kirienko. District

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia