Mark Pelling, Alejandro Barcena, Hayley Leck, Ibidun Adelekan, David Dodman, Hamadou Issaka, Cassidy Johnson, Mtafu Manda, Blessing Mberu, Ezebunwa Nwokocha, Emmanuel Osuteye, and Soumana Boubacar
includes building design, construction and land-use planning, enhanced infrastructure access and maintenance, risk awareness and planning for emergency response and reconstruction, including social safety nets and insurance. To deliver a sustainable city for all requires a more frank and comprehensive focus on procedure: Who makes decisions, under which frameworks, based upon what kind of data, and with what degree and direction of accountability?
This chapter explores the status and the scope for transition of risk-sensitive and transformative urban
A conceptual framework for considering mapping projects as they change
as foams 209
and changing circumstances, the temporal emergence of a crisis is echoed in the
ways mappings emerge during crisis response.
Maps are an essential medium for organising and sharing information in
emergency contexts – think of the big wall maps common in emergency coordination centres. Crisis maps are online collaborations where volunteers create
maps to help understand and respond to natural disasters and
conflicts. For example, following the huge storm Typhoon Haiyan (locally
known as Yolanda) which hit the Philippines in November 2013
‘developing cost effective risk management and emergency management practices that address preparedness, mitigation, response and
recovery for both natural and man-made disasters to assure safety and security’.
This notion of preparedness is analysed by Fearnley (2007), who traces the
history of US public health policies as part of the national civil defence system
characterised by a logic of preparedness in contrast to that of insurance. While
the latter, as Fearnley shows, informed the post-war establishment of social
welfare states with national health care systems in
Learning from communities in informal settlements in Durban, South
Maria Christina Georgiadou and Claudia Loggia
. Hence, only temporary and low-cost fixes are applied to the houses. After a fire incident, the municipality claimed to have provided some relief to two houses. However, one of these households reported that they did not receive the materials in time and sourced their own materials to rebuild, while the other house did not manage to secure any materials from the municipality as the supply ran out and it had to obtain materials later independently. Although eThekwini officials stated that in the event of an emergency ‘the disaster teams are the first to respond
alongside the sometimes limited potential to shape city futures differently. The path dependencies and lock-ins of different urban systems undermine a sense that there are invariably universal ‘solutions’ to generic ‘problems’. What works at one scale might not work at another. The pressing demands of the present and the imperatives to intervene in settings of gross injustice or times and places of ‘emergency’ in the present day might properly prioritise ‘clumsy’ or pragmatic solutions over elegant and systemic optima.
In framing the city through the lens of public
Urban transformation and public health in future cities
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
accident and emergency facilities is different from the optimal distribution of stroke or cancer care. And so the nineteenth-century roots of public health care in the UK and the twenty-first-century imagination of the NHS map uneasily onto this diversity, structured simultaneously by the propensities of both technological advances and built environment infrastructure lock-ins.
In contrast, defibrillators were first invented in the late nineteenth century by the Geneva-based doctors Jean-Louis Prevost and Frederic Batelli, and various medical advances realised their
to stakeholders may vary widely, although in practice there is overlap. We can
distinguish between dashboards providing accountability and legitimacy through
transparency (Perez and Rushing, 2007: 11), collecting intelligence and providing cues for action, managing emergencies, benchmarking and comparison,
surveilling and controlling (Kitchin, 2013: 15), offering democratising tools for
civic empowerment and social change (Holden and Moreno Pires, 2015), and
providing creative opportunities to hackers, artists, app makers and citizens, like