A. W. Brian Simpson

these trials were quite public.24 After some uncertainty the military persuaded the government to introduce what amounted to a form of martial law legitimised by emergency legislation under the Defence of the Realm Acts (hereafter DORA). The first DORA allowed regulations to be made ‘for securing the public safety and the defence of the realm’ and specifically: (a) to prevent persons communicating with the enemy or obtaining information for that purpose or any purpose calculated to jeopardise the success of the operations of any of H.M. forces or to assist the enemy

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
Joseph Jaconelli

televised ordeal of O. J. Simpson in a Los Angeles courtroom two thousand years later. ‘What is a trial?’ is a question that has seldom engaged the interest of lawyers. Yet the concept of a trial is central to some of the most fundamental ideas about human rights. Imprisonment, or internment, without trial is regarded as abhorrent and capable of being justified only by the most pressing needs of wartime or national emergency. If a person is to be deprived of his liberty, it is widely felt, this should occur only as the result of a more open and formal process than the

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny
Sam Goodman

1 Lady amateurs and gentleman professionals: emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny Sam Goodman The events that took place in central India during the summer of 1857 have gone by many names over the last 150  years. Historians of colonial India have variously referred to the disorder of that year as the Sepoy Rebellion, the First War of Independence and, perhaps more familiarly, the Indian Mutiny, often reflecting the partisan positions of the original participants.1 Despite the discrepancy over what to call it, most historians agree that the initial uprising

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Editors: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.

A necessary dialogue

The substantive and methodological contributions of professional historians to development policy debates was marginal, whether because of the dominance of economists or the inability of historians to contribute. There are broadly three ways in which history matters for development policy. These include insistence on the methodological principles of respect for context, process and difference; history is a resource of critical and reflective self-awareness about the nature of the discipline of development itself; and history brings a particular kind of perspective to development problems . After establishing the key issues, this book explores the broad theme of the institutional origins of economic development, focusing on the cases of nineteenth-century India and Africa. It demonstrates that scholarship on the origins of industrialisation in England in the late eighteenth century suggests a gestation reaching back to a period during which a series of social institutional innovations were pioneered and extended to most citizens of England. The book examines a paradox in China where an emphasis on human welfare characterized the rule of the eighteenth-century Qing dynasty, and has been demonstrated in modern-day China's emphasis on health and education. It provides a discussion on the history of the relationship between ideology and policy in public health, sanitation in India's modern history and the poor health of Native Americans. The book unpacks the origins of public education, with a focus on the emergency of mass literacy in Victorian England and excavates the processes by which colonial education was indigenized throughout South-East Asia.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Christine E. Hallett

Part III Volunteer girls Tens of thousands of women prepared themselves for war service as nurses in the years leading up to the First World War. A minority of these were fully trained. Others attached themselves to VADs, undertook short courses in sick-nursing, bandaging, invalid cookery, and hygiene, and held themselves in readiness for war. Still others came forward at the outbreak of war with no training at all, and began developing their skills in the heat and stress of the wartime emergency. Anne Summers has shown that British and Dominion women had been

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Colonialism and Native Health nursing in New Zealand, 1900–40
Linda Bryder

Western medicine and the State, as suggested by some commentators informed by social control and victimisation models of history writing.4 Rather, I will show how Native Health nurses were often thrown into emergency situations during outbreaks of infectious disease, totally reliant on the help and co-operation of the local people who far outnumbered them, and how they were required to negotiate and be flexible in their nursing practices. Past historians have addressed the origins of the scheme and some of the obstacles faced, but have not examined in depth the nurses

in Colonial caring
Defending Cold War Canada
Katie Pickles

Sponsored by the Toronto Peace Council, the dean’s cross-Canada itinerary included Vancouver, supposedly under the auspices of the Vancouver branch of the Council of Canadian-Soviet Friendship. 41 The IODE used its influence to try to deny the dean entry to Canada. An emergency meeting of national officers in Toronto resulted in a message to acting Prime Minister Louis St Laurent, describing the

in Female imperialism and national identity
Elisha P. Renne

a state of emergency had been imposed on three northeastern states – Borno, Yobe and Adamawa, 67 two of which were named in the IMB report. Aside from implementing a state of emergency and closing down radio stations that broadcast shows critical of the polio vaccination campaign, critics of the GPEI have also been threatened with arrest. In some communities with low levels of immunisation where parents have continued to resist the polio

in The politics of vaccination