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Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

, embedded in an EU and a NATO that, through their inclusive and non-aggressive character, do not permit the ‘alliance– counter-alliance’ structure of the Europe of the past. An intricate ‘European security architecture’ – provided by the two institutions mentioned plus others – may be confusing and overlapping, but may also preserve peace and co-operation via their multiple activities. Co-operation intensified following the terrorist attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001, leading to a broad anti-terrorism coalition spanning the Atlantic and beyond and

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

globalisation and its being exposed to greater competition from emerging non-European economies. Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the European Union in 1995, increasing its membership to fifteen. Other institutions, such as the Council of Europe, also included more and more members in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and began to form – with NATO, the European Union and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) – a rather complicated Europeansecurity architecture’. All these organisations were faced with immediate challenges, such as

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

’s European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), was to be used only in extreme cases of conflicts in Europe or its vicinity. Emphasis would be laid on the so-called ‘Petersberg tasks’ of peacekeeping or peacemaking. These also included conflict identification and prevention, including emergency assistance, police training, the building of a civil society and even trade policies for economic stability. The tasks of the Western European Union, which up to then had served as the main expression of European security defence policies, would for all practical purposes be taken

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

Napoleon at Austerlitz in 1805, where utter confusion, rivalry and vanity led to total defeat? Finally, how much would British rejection and American coolness to the idea have affected its viability over time? NATO was already in existence, and the United States was determined to have an important say over West European security affairs. An EDC, especially one without the United States’ most important ally, the United Kingdom, risked creating a ‘decoupling’ of the old world from the new – an unattractive possibility given the growing US–Soviet rivalry with Europe as its

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

Council of Europe nor the OSCE had been able alone to satisfy this aim. The Washington Summit also decided to build a European Security and Defence Identity within the alliance. The policy called for a much stronger European responsibility in handling future conflicts of the Kosovo type. New threats would be brought to NATO’s attention, giving it a right of ‘first refusal’. In cases where the alliance would not want to act as such, a European Union chain of command would be expected to take over responsibility, borrowing equipment from NATO (and especially the United

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Yalta farewell; how new a world?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

something to which a common defence policy ‘might in time lead’. ‘Might’, ‘in time’ and ‘lead ‘ are all heavy qualifiers, again there at the insistence of those who did not wish any strengthening of a European security and defence policy to come at the cost of transatlantic ties. Co-operation in the spheres of justice and home affairs constituted a separate pillar of the treaty. It comprised such things as asylum policy, border crossing, crossings by persons, immigration, the fight against drugs and international fraud, judicial co-operation in civil and criminal matters

in Destination Europe
Towards a union or not?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

original question, are the peoples, national parliaments and national governments prepared to relinquish such authority to the European Parliament? This is far from certain. New EU transparency rules In the summer of 2000 the Council of Ministers pushed through a new secrecy directive banning public access to most EU correspondence and documents. This was deemed necessary to protect confidentiality on matters touching on the European Security and Defence Policy. However, the directive also inevitably came to include much of the rest of the EU. At the end of 2000 the

in Destination Europe