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From Afghanistan to Iraq
Kerry Longhurst

this evolution: the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP); and the emergence of a neo-conservative strand in US foreign policy thinking. Efforts at emboldening the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy with a military dimension had been largely ineffectual until the end of the 1990s, when the project was given a greater impetus by the war in Kosovo together with a renewed Franco-British commitment to the project. The events of 1999 compelled EU member states to create a viable military component to empower their collective external role and voice in the world

in Germany and the use of force
Kerry Longhurst

between the defence minister and the three service inspekteuren. Further enhancing the generalinspekteur’s position a führungszentrum of around sixty-five staff was assigned to him in early 1995.8 Step-change in Bundeswehr force structure was prompted first by NATO’s London Declaration of 1990, which heralded the move away from forward defence. Reacting to this, already in 1991, Generalinspekteur Klaus Naumann outlined what change in the European security environment meant for the Bundeswehr. In addition to the usual protection of German citizens, he stressed that to

in Germany and the use of force
Henrik Larsen

lines of Campbell (1992) , the identification of a concept of security in the EU discourse is also interesting because the articulation of threats, an ‘other’, is a crucial part of establishing a foreign policy identity. The question then is, what elements are constructed as threats to European or EU security? Wæver (1996) : 122) argues that the threat to European security is not found in space but rather in time: Europe

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
A political–cultural approach
Lisbeth Aggestam

an independent defence component. It is therefore not surprising to note the unease with which the French reluctantly recognise American leadership in European security through NATO. In Germany, the idea of exerting leadership is formulated very cautiously to avoid any association with historical analogies. Nonetheless, the role of leader is conceived of as emancipation from the past, in the sense

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Adrian Hyde-Price

political decisions; and the European Commission, which, according to the Maastricht Treaty on European Union, is to be ‘fully associated’ with the work carried out in the CFSP field. In addition, a ‘policy planning and early warning unit’ has been established in the General Secretariat of the Council under the responsibility of the High Representative. With the launch of the Union’s European Security and

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Is the CFSP sui generis?
Jakob C. Øhrgaard

War redefining European security interests. But pressures also came from within, especially in terms of a British determination to re-assert leadership within the European Union and seeing defence and security as an area of comparative advantage for so doing (White, 2001 : 118). Somewhat paradoxically, the key to understanding these adaptations appears to lie in the very fact that CFSP has been perceived by its members to

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Adjusting to life after the Cold War
Kerry Longhurst

ending of the Cold War gave rise to a range of pulls and pressures both from within and from outside of Germany to respond to the changes in the European security environment and to rethink the existing tenets of West Germany’s security policies. The statements quoted above from Josef Joffe and Wolfgang Schlör capture the fundamental quandaries that confronted German thinking about the use of force and the role of the armed forces in the wake of the events of 1989–90. At stake at this time was how the new Germany’s perspectives on the use of military force could be re

in Germany and the use of force
The European union’s policy in the field of arms export controls
Sibylle Bauer and Eric Remacle

into account a third dimension of the Europeanisation process; that is, variable geometry. The shaping of concentric circles, differentiated security dilemmas and interlocking regional security subsystems and organisations (Remacle and Seidelmann 1998 ) as aspects of variable geometry characterise the evolving nature of the European security system since the end of bipolarity. In addition, variable geometry

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Brian White

European political cooperation by a commitment to a Common Foreign and Security Policy and the subsequent development of the European Rapid Reaction Force signalled a determination at least to move forward on that front, initially through the mechanism of the Western European Union but ultimately through the creation of a European Security and Defence Policy. We need still to explore whether these aspirations have been converted into a

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
The logics underpining EU enlargement
Helene Sjursen and Karen E. Smith

settle problems over borders and minorities, which could threaten European security – and much more importantly, any eventual enlargement process (European Council 1993 ). See the Joint Action convening the Pact (European Council 1993 ); the ‘Concluding Document from the Inaugural Conference for a Pact on Stability in Europe’, EU Bulletin , no. 5, 1994; and the ‘Political Declaration adopted at the

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy