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Towards a union or not?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

governments for this, or they may blame Brussels. If they choose the former, the government in question normally throws up its arms and points to Brussels. However, it is difficult to pinpoint responsibility in Brussels. The Council of Ministers is still a secretive body, with virtually none of its meetings public, although it is a fundamental tenet of democracy that any law-making meeting of any legislative body must be public. The same holds for meetings of the Commission. In 1996 the United Kingdom was forced through a verdict by the EU’s European Court of Justice to

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

of bananas, traditionally imported them from whatever country offered the lowest price, whether or not it was linked to the EU through the so-called Lomé Agreement giving preferential trade status to a large number of so-called ACP (African, Pacific and Caribbean) countries. However, a judgement by the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg ruled that this was a violation of Lomé, in spite of Germany’s protests that in buying from a country such as Costa Rica it only respected GATT–WTO principles. The economic interests of the Germans (who consume more bananas per

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Yalta farewell; how new a world?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

’ procedures to more policy areas. The European Court of Justice was given the right to fine member states found in breach of EC legislation. New policy areas were brought explicitly into the EC framework for the first time, such as culture, consumer protection, environment, research and technological development, industrial competitiveness, and economic and social cohesion. Above all, however, it was the provisions for an Economic and Monetary Union that would provide the greatest impetus toward political integration. Those suspicious of more integration also scored some

in Destination Europe