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The European union’s policy in the field of arms export controls
Sibylle Bauer
and
Eric Remacle

undercutting. Before undercutting can take place, the two governments involved are required to enter into consultations. As a Council Declaration, the Code agreement is only politically, not legally binding. And since it was agreed within CFSP, on the basis of Title V of the TEU, its implementation cannot be enforced by the European Court of Justice (Article 46 TEU). Thus no Community legislation on arms exports exists to date. And

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Open Access (free)
John Mceldowney

front line of major political controversies and, in many instances, the full glare of publicity. This may be unearthing facts and attributing fault at the expense of eroding judicial independence. Society might or might not regard this as a risk worth taking if it provides an independent review of government decisions (Loughlin 2001: 41). The European dimension The development of the European Union (EU) is another example of how judges now appear to be at the apex of power. The European Court of Justice provides member states with a valuable means of resolving

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts
and
Patricia Hogwood

)/Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie European and cross-national organisations ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific (states) CFSP Common Foreign and Security Policy COREPER Committee of Permanent Representatives CSCE Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe EC European Community ECB European Central Bank ECJ European Court of Justice ECOFIN Economic and Finance Council (of Ministers) ECSC European Coal and Steel Community ECU European

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Arantza Gomez Arana

between the EU and its member states resembles a federal system in many ways (Pollack 2005). However, Pollack (2005) argues that the way that this is expressed in such vague language implies that most policy areas are dealt with at both the national and the supranational levels. The vague nature of this institutional arrangement enables the European Court of Justice to clarify the limitations that are not established in the Treaties. Consequently, whenever there is disagreement, the European Court of 54 The EU’s policy towards Mercosur Justice will decide who

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Neil McNaughton

meant that it has been difficult to safeguard the rights of citizens. The European Union has introduced a wide range of rights for workers, consumers and recipients of welfare benefits. Enforced by the European Court of Justice, various European Acts are now effectively entrenched in British law. 4 British courts must now bow to the superior status of the European Court of Justice where European laws are concerned. The House of Lords is no longer the ultimate court of appeal in many cases. This role has now been transferred to Europe. Parliament Britain has made

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

Court of Justice and the European Court of Rights which ensures that women are given equal treatment at work, in terms of working conditions and in welfare benefits. The passage of the Human Rights Act in 1999 made it easier for women to claim discrimination under the European Convention on Human Rights. They may, since then, bring a case in the British courts. This saves both time and money. REMAINING ISSUES The battles for equal treatment for women in most aspects of life have been won. However, there remain a number of areas, often which are less clear, where

in Understanding British and European political issues
Neil McNaughton

policy, transport projects, competition policy and the Social Chapter. Working with member governments the Commission is occupied with the task of ensuring that all these programmes operate effectively. In cases where it feels that a country may be in breach of laws and regulations it will report the matter to the European Court of Justice for possible legal enforcement. Part of this wider task is to produce an annual budget for the Union. This means setting the level of contributions from member states (according to agreed formulas) and determining how the finances

in Understanding British and European political issues
Dimitris Tsarouhas

could now be used as a catalyst from which a new Swedish model, befitting the globalised and Europeanised reality of Swedish policy-making, could potentially emerge. Second, and equally importantly, show that powerful challenges to the continued relevance of the labour movement in Swedish policy-making are currently in operation. Internally, the centre-right coalition government’s labour and trade union laws diminish the power of organised labour. Externally, a recent ruling by the European Court of Justice may have longterm implications for the viability of the

in In search of social democracy
Philip Lynch

the European Court of Justice. The signing of the Amsterdam and Nice Treaties fuelled Euro-sceptic demands for renegotiation and EU reform, though the leadership was cagey on how it might deal with new areas of the acquis that it opposed. Following the signing of the Nice Treaty, Maude signalled that the Conservatives would call for two IGCs. The first would The Conservatives and Europe, 1997–2001 153 be a brief affair, coinciding with the next European Council meeting. Its remit would be to produce a Treaty stripped of its ‘integrationist’ elements but

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

single chamber, without an upper house to check its power, Parliament itself has limited powers over the executive branch (i.e. the Commission and Council of Ministers combined). The European Court of Justice does provide some degree of control, but the absence of a constitution means they have little documentary evidence on which to base their decisions. ● Some member countries such as the UK and Denmark have argued that there cannot be any further political integration until the democratic deficit is addressed. Others, such as Germany and Italy, on the other hand

in Understanding British and European political issues