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Peter J. Spiro

asserts that we “cannot make sense of claims to inclusion in the city of Florence, the region of Tuscany or the European Union without describing first the different nature of these polities and their relations with the Italian state” (p. 51). I am not so sure. One can be a sociological member of a locality or a region without being a sociological member of a national state. This is the logic of non-citizen voting in local elections. Although membership in

in Democratic inclusion
Open Access (free)
A pluralist theory of citizenship
Rainer Bauböck

rights; the introduction of conditional ius soli in Germany in 2000 and Greece in 2010/2015 4 and the abandoning of unconditional ius soli by constitutional referendum in Ireland in 2004; the widespread introduction of language and civic knowledge tests as a naturalization requirement for immigrants in Europe since the late 1990s; the 2010 Rottmann decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union that member states have to take EU law

in Democratic inclusion
Open Access (free)
Strangers among citizens

refugees since World War II. Whilst it was first dubbed a ‘migrant crisis’, by the end of the same year, media outlets across Europe started referring to it as the largest ‘refugee crisis’ in the European Union (EU). 1 After the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s, EU Member States developed legal mechanisms, such as the Temporary Protection Directive, 2 founded on the idea of sharing responsibility in the case of greater numbers of people seeking asylum in the European Community

in The Fringes of Citizenship

(Reding, 2010a ; Balch et al. , 2013 ; and Ferreira, 2019 ) which also constituted a breach of the EU's 2000 Race Equality Directive (O’Nions, 2011 ). This Directive prohibits indirect discrimination on the basis of race or ethnicity. Following Article 258 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the European Commission announced an infringement procedure against France on 15 October 2010 because it was not abiding by the fundamental legal principles of the EU. However, by 19 October the European Commission had revoked its decision, and it did not

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Philip Nanton

the latter part of the twentieth century a legitimate, if protected, trade in banana growing, which was equally popular with small as well as large farmers, became increasingly uneconomic as British and European Union subsidies to the eastern Caribbean were dismantled as a result of World Trade Organization regulations. From around 9,000 registered banana farmers in St Vincent in the early 1990s, who

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
Sabotage as a citizenship enactment at the fringes

discrimination they face in their everyday lives so that they create ruptures in citizenship? In 2016 the FRA published the Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey , which found that almost a third of Romani respondents who were EU citizens indicated that they were not aware of anti-discrimination laws in their countries, only 12 per cent reported discrimination, and 82 per cent responded they did not know of any organisations that could support them if they were discriminated against; yet one in two Roma felt they were discriminated against on the basis of

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Rousseau’s and nationalism
Mads Qvortrup

this opposition. Yet, Rousseau’s opposition to the Projet du paix perpétuelle was also based on more traditional concerns – concerns which belong to the realm of international political theory. We are prone to forget that Rousseau – for political purposes – equated Europe with the whole world. When Abbé de Saint-Pierre proposed a federation of European states he, in effect, presented the seventeenth-century equivalent of World Government – not merely a forerunner of the European Union. And while Rousseau was favourably disposed towards the goal (i.e. perpetual peace

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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Rainer Bauböck

4 of chapter 1 . It is perhaps easiest to understand for derivative citizenship. I am a citizen of the European Union because I am an Austrian citizen by birth and Austria is a member state of the EU. Member states are the constitutive polities of the EU as a union of democratic states. Such a union tries to combine the self-government of member states as independent countries in the international arena with supranational democracy at the

in Democratic inclusion