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Rousseau’s and nationalism
Mads Qvortrup

4 A civic profession of faith: Rousseau’s and nationalism When Heinrich Heine, the German poet, visited Italy in 1828 he noted in his diary: It is as if World History is seeking to become spiritual … she has a great task. What it is? It is emancipation. Not just the emancipation of the Irish, the Greeks, the Jews and the Blacks of the West Indies. No, the emancipation of the whole world, especially in Europe, where the peoples have reached maturity. (Heine quoted in Gell 1998: 13) In seeking national self-determination Heine was preaching a new doctrine, one

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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A pluralist theory of citizenship
Rainer Bauböck

self-confident in asserting quasi-natural boundaries of nation, territory and language. If the liberal transformation of democracy has contributed to making the boundary problem politically more salient, then the diagnosis that there is no cure for the problem that democratic theory can provide would be very bad news indeed. Focusing on recent years in Europe alone, here is a small sample of events in which problems of democratic inclusion and

in Democratic inclusion
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Time and space
Saurabh Dube

works exploring historicity and temporality, practice and process, meaning and power, in Africa and Oceania, Europe and the Americas. Now, it became clear that even as Indian anthropology, particularly its specialization from the 1950s onwards, was shored up by distinct disciplinary demarcations with history, exactly in this scenario, there were discrete efforts by some anthropologists to engage

in Subjects of modernity
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An introduction
Saurabh Dube

see, all of this shores up, as well, what the work might contribute to discussions of modernity after so much has been said and written about the subject. Primary matters It warrants emphasis that the conditions of possibility for this work lie in a series of critical questions concerning modernity, history, and the West/Europe, which have been raised by distinct perspectives

in Subjects of modernity
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Antinomies and enticements
Saurabh Dube

since at least the eighteenth century. 14 At stake, indeed, are mappings of time and orderings of space, which substantialize both (space and time) in antinomian ways. Representations emanating from the European Enlightenment have played a key role here. Now, it would be hasty and erroneous to see the European Enlightenment of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as all of a piece. From contending

in Subjects of modernity
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An epilogue
Saurabh Dube

imaginary but palpable distended and aggrandizing West/Europe as modernity – for all those awaiting its second coming in prior places, anachronistic spaces, lagging in time. In artistic, intellectual, and aesthetic arenas, modernism(s) in South Asia have variously, often critically, engaged with these projections and presuppositions: but they have also been unable to easily escape

in Subjects of modernity
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Identities and incitements
Saurabh Dube

agents of colonialism, diverse agendas of empire. 9 On the one hand, the racial mythologies and the homespun lifestyles of colonizers sought to blur such fault lines, often invoking an exclusive time-space of European (and Euro-American) folk. On the other, divisions between different colonialist groups also stood highlighted within everyday representations and quotidian practices in distinct contexts

in Subjects of modernity
Peter J. Spiro

asserts that we “cannot make sense of claims to inclusion in the city of Florence, the region of Tuscany or the European Union without describing first the different nature of these polities and their relations with the Italian state” (p. 51). I am not so sure. One can be a sociological member of a locality or a region without being a sociological member of a national state. This is the logic of non-citizen voting in local elections. Although membership in

in Democratic inclusion
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Entanglements and ambiguities
Saurabh Dube

encountered in European overseas expansion. Although thus fundamentally (and oppositionally) diversitarian in impulse, such study has usually implied a reflexivity which reencompassed the European self and alien “other” within a unitary humankind. This history of anthropology may thus be viewed as a continuing (and complex) dialectic between the universalism of

in Subjects of modernity
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Rainer Bauböck

4 of chapter 1 . It is perhaps easiest to understand for derivative citizenship. I am a citizen of the European Union because I am an Austrian citizen by birth and Austria is a member state of the EU. Member states are the constitutive polities of the EU as a union of democratic states. Such a union tries to combine the self-government of member states as independent countries in the international arena with supranational democracy at the

in Democratic inclusion