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Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

Currency Unit EDC European Defence Community EEA European Economic Area EEC European Economic Community EFTA European Free Trade Area EM European Monetary System EMI European Monetary Institute EMU Economic and Monetary Union EP European Parliament ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism ESCB European System of Central Banks EU European Union EUA European Unit of Account EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community ESCB European System of Central Banks G-7 Group of Seven G-8 Group of Eight GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade IGC

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Colman

), help to integrate the international economic policies of countries concerned. Trade policy was discussed in the context of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which sought to expand free trade. 44 There was also cooperation through the World Bank. In the years after Bretton Woods both Labour and Conservative governments were committed to retaining a strong pound and to preserving the sterling area as symbols of continued preeminence

in A ‘special relationship’?
Knud Erik Jørgensen

on Tariffs and Trade (Grieco 1990 ), including the so-called Uruguay round, which resulted in the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Furthermore, it has been tested within specific trade issues, such as the EU–US banana dispute (Stevens 1996 ), Commissioner Karel van Miert’s effective intervention in the Boeing–McDonnell Douglas merger, and innumerable other cases since. Fifth, although Europe’s policy on ex-Yugoslavia came

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

liberalisation of trade and investment on terms favourable to American interests. To attain all three objectives, the US had to maintain a strong influence in Europe, and either cooperation on economic and security issues had to be mutually reinforcing or, at worst, conflicts in one area (especially economic) had to be prevented from contaminating relations in the other. The fact that the US sought to institutionalise its relationship with the Union almost at the same time as the collapse of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) talks in 1990 is a case in point

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Arantza Gomez Arana

guidelines. However, these issues were also in some part a product 114 The EU’s policy towards Mercosur of the guidelines. The reorganization of EU–Latin American relations is linked to the reformulation of the structure of the GSP (Cepal 1999). The revision was planned for 1991 but was postponed until 1995 due to the delay in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (Sanahuja 1999). Arguably this had an effect on the new GSP as the new GSP set tariff rates depending on how suitable the products were for EU producers, as well as how developed the country was

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds
Eşref Aksu

the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regime. Under enormous pressure from the South, the industrialised countries did participate in UNCTAD, albeit reluctantly. In the course of discussions they proposed that UNCTAD be placed under the authority of ECOSOC rather than be created as an autonomous specialised agency. Another proposal, which envisaged equal representation of developed and

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change