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The break-up of a party confederation
Nicolas Sauger

present separate candidates was only taken one month before the elections, and so a number of candidates were only fielded at the eleventh hour. Indeed, in some cases UDF candidates were in fact members of DL. 27 The growth of New UDF in 2002 (Tables 7.1 and 7.2) derive principally from other components of the UDF which remained within New UDF. 28 In 1958, during the first legislative elections of the Fifth Republic, the Independents of the CNI – the precursors to the PR – won 118 seats and became the second largest group in the National Assembly. General de Gaulle’s

in The French party system
The role of France and French interests in European development policy since 1957
Anne-Sophie Claeys

.-C. Smouts (ed.), Les Nouvelles Relations Internationales. Pratiques et Théories, Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale de Science Politique. Lister, M. R. (1988), The European Community and the Developing World, Aldershot: Avebury. Mitterrand, F. (1957), Présence Française et Abandon, Paris: Plon. Moravcsik, A. (1999 and 2000), ‘Le grain et la grandeur: les origines économiques de la politique européenne du Général de Gaulle’, Revue Française de Science Politique 49: 4–5, pp. 507–43 (première partie); 50: 1, pp. 73–122 (deuxième partie). Moreau-Desfarges, Ph. (1994

in EU development cooperation
Bureaucratic politics in EU aid – from the Lomé leap forward to the difficulties of adapting to the twenty-first century
Adrian Hewitt and Kaye Whiteman

the aid relationship he became the paymaster of several French parties. In the 1990s Omar Bongo wrote that in the 1960s he had asked General de Gaulle why he was so reticent about British entry (‘mais pourquoi, mon Général?’). The General replied ‘It is because of you others, the francophone Africans. For you in this affair of the European Community, everything happens pro rata because of demography, so when you see the giants, Nigeria, Tanzania, Kenya beside Gabon, one must be vigilant’ (Bongo 90, 1994). India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and even the later poverty

in EU development cooperation
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, explanations of significant political events, groupings and developments.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

France at age 19. He later graduated in politics and took a doctorate in law at 21. Politically active from an early age, he joined the Radical Party at 16. In 1932 he became the youngest Deputy in the Parliament and in 1938, as Under-Secretary of State for the Treasury, the youngest member of a government in the Third Republic. Falsely charged with desertion during the Second World War, he escaped from prison to England, joined General de

in The politics today companion to West European Politics