present separate candidates was only taken one month before
the elections, and so a number of candidates were only fielded at the eleventh
hour. Indeed, in some cases UDF candidates were in fact members of DL.
27 The growth of New UDF in 2002 (Tables 7.1 and 7.2) derive principally
from other components of the UDF which remained within New UDF.
28 In 1958, during the first legislative elections of the Fifth Republic, the
Independents of the CNI – the precursors to the PR – won 118 seats and
became the second largest group in the National Assembly. GeneraldeGaulle’s
The role of France and French interests in European development policy since 1957
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Les Nouvelles Relations Internationales. Pratiques et Théories, Paris: Presses de la
Fondation Nationale de Science Politique.
Lister, M. R. (1988), The European Community and the Developing World, Aldershot:
Mitterrand, F. (1957), Présence Française et Abandon, Paris: Plon.
Moravcsik, A. (1999 and 2000), ‘Le grain et la grandeur: les origines économiques de
la politique européenne du GénéraldeGaulle’, Revue Française de Science Politique 49:
4–5, pp. 507–43 (première partie); 50: 1, pp. 73–122 (deuxième partie).
Moreau-Desfarges, Ph. (1994
Bureaucratic politics in EU aid – from the Lomé leap forward to the difficulties of adapting to the twenty-first century
Adrian Hewitt and Kaye Whiteman
the aid relationship
he became the paymaster of several French parties. In the 1990s Omar Bongo
wrote that in the 1960s he had asked GeneraldeGaulle why he was so reticent about British entry (‘mais pourquoi, mon Général?’). The General replied ‘It
is because of you others, the francophone Africans. For you in this affair of the
European Community, everything happens pro rata because of demography,
so when you see the giants, Nigeria, Tanzania, Kenya beside Gabon, one must
be vigilant’ (Bongo 90, 1994). India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and even the later
France at age 19. He later graduated in politics and took a doctorate in law
at 21. Politically active from an early age, he joined the Radical Party at
16. In 1932 he became the youngest Deputy in the Parliament and in 1938, as
Under-Secretary of State for the Treasury, the youngest member of a
government in the Third Republic. Falsely charged with desertion during the
Second World War, he escaped from prison to England, joined Generalde