Simon Mabon

normative environments. By doing this we are better placed to engage with the regulation of life and the subjugation of life to death. Notes 1 This chapter is a modified version of an article originally published in Third World Quarterly. I thank the editors for permission to reuse it here. 2 Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History (Franz Rosenthal trans.) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967), p. 39. 3 Charles Tilly, The Formation of Nation States in Western Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975), p. 45. 4

in Houses built on sand
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Simon Mabon

philosophical and practical considerations. Scholars as far back as Ibn Khaldun have focused upon the social power of religion, which, as the twentieth century developed, became increasingly important. At the turn of the century, religion was largely seen as a private matter, yet in the postcolonial period, a number of regimes used the legitimising ideologies of religion to support their claims to self-​determination. Religion took on an increasing political importance, leading to the emergence of competition between the nationalist movements of pan-​ Arabists who advocated

in Houses built on sand