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Coreen Anne McGuire

of the principles by which the pulsator operated, and we will see in the section on ‘Patient experiences in the machine’ that this dispute led to the MRC leading an intervention to decide on a ‘standard’ breathing machine. However, these inimitable breathing machines proved to be remarkably difficult to standardise. Technologies designed to enable breathing are unique in their association with life, death and voice. 9 As I have previously discussed with philosopher Havi Carel and healthcare professional Kate Binnie, ‘technologies bringing oxygen into the body

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

connections between both the Post Office and the MRC with the state, which allowed them to interact as and with the wider British government. Ameliorating the impact of disability on society thus became a concern of national importance as the post-war years were marked by growing state intervention into welfare and increased recognition of government’s duty to moderate societal health. Further state explorations of disability were motivated by the incentive to generate national anthropometric standards to measure and halt the progress of perceived interwar degeneration. The

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Coreen Anne McGuire

medical profession, but also changed attitudes towards deafness as perceptions of treatment shifted. This shift influenced a move away from treatments derived from eugenics-based ideologies which conceptualised deafness as a purely hereditary condition, to rehabilitation movements based around the theory that noise-induced deafness could affect anyone. War-induced deafness also meant that there was an acknowledgement of social responsibility (manifesting in various charitable movements for disabled veterans) as well as an official policy of state intervention reflected

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Coreen Anne McGuire

divided into numerous sub-sections which were endowed with significant freedom in their organisation and research. 129 The medical surveys undertaken from 1936 to 1942 were led by Dr Phillip D’Arcy Hart and Dr Edward Aslett, assisted by a large team of engineers, inspectors and pathologists. 130 Retrospectively, D’Arcy Hart attributed government intervention to the rise of compensation costs, concern for the health of the miners and the fact that ‘there was a war round the corner and they certainly did not want a dissatisfied coal-producing force’. 131 The MRC

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Coreen Anne McGuire

the scientist Dr Phyllis Kerridge, who perhaps more than anyone else advocated for more scientific methods for testing hearing. 62 Kerridge was the first person in Britain to own a Western Electric (pure tone) audiometer, and she used this to conduct statistical studies on hearing thresholds, moving hearing loss into the realm of medicine by considering hearing loss as a ‘legitimate scientific problem worthy of technocratic intervention’. 63 Kerridge’s plans to define ‘normal hearing’ were based on her faith in precise and ‘exact measurement’ and she introduced

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Martin D. Moore

s and 1970s, and the DHSS and MRC had engaged with questions about drug safety. 2 However, there was little in the way of concerted government programmes or interventions. This changed considerably in the 1980s. The volume of parliamentary discussion increased greatly, as technological innovations and concerns about complications became subject to debate and the limitations of NHS resources. 3 In part, this chapter argues, the reappearance of diabetes was predicated upon networks of exchange developed over the post-war period. For instance

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
George Campbell Gosling

provision. Municipal interventionism, in both economic and social fields, was evident in Bristol from the early to mid-nineteenth century. Following the 1831 riots there were calls for policing reform, and following legislation the city established a public constabulary in 1836. 73 When an outbreak of cholera claimed 445 lives in 1849, the response was to establish the corporation's sanitary committee in 1851. 74 This signalled the adoption of

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg

in the summer of 2009. Over 60 per cent of people living in Sweden were vaccinated during the fall of 2009 with a new vaccine. This was the single largest public health intervention in response to an outbreak in Swedish history. Five different vaccines were developed during the pandemic and were approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the EU commission in a special fast-track procedure. 1 Sweden had signed a

in The politics of vaccination
Elisha P. Renne

in Kaduna precisely because it had been identified as an area of parental non-compliance, based on data collected during earlier immunisation day exercises (Figure 11.1 ). Yet the specific historical context of vaccination programmes – how, by whom, and why they were implemented – and vaccine production and procurement has had consequences for such interventions and how they have been subsequently perceived

in The politics of vaccination
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
Jaime Benchimol

national interventionism. 1 Yellow fever: from miasma to microbes Although the New World had seen yellow fever outbreaks ever since its colonisation by Europeans, it was only in the nineteenth century that it became the scourge of the continent, turning two cities, Havana and Rio de Janeiro, into ‘infectious volcanoes’. 2 Public hygienists blamed the environment, citing both the nature of the ‘torrid latitudes

in The politics of vaccination