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A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism
Bassam Tibi

concept of political order. To be sure, it is not democratic order ( Tibi, 1998a : chapters 7 and 8 ). The assumption is that a democratic peace is a guarantee of non-belligerent conflict resolution in that democracies negotiate, but do not wage wars against each other (see Russet, 1993 ). In this regard, the question is whether divine orders, based on the Sharia (Islamic law) or, alternatively, on the Halakha (Jewish law

in Redefining security in the Middle East
A veiled threat
Thomas J. Butko

). 5 The Sharia , or more specifically Islamic Law, is derived primarily from the Quran . 6 Hamas was not originally created for the purpose of providing an alternative to the PLO, but rather for the purpose of responding to the intifada and the continuing Israeli occupation. However, it has

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

The Ottoman system was the antithesis of the European nation-state system. It was a patrimonial empire headed by a Sultan-Caliph whose rule was legitimated by the implementation of the Islamic law, the outward sign of the supranational Islamic umma . The ruling elite’s multi-national origins reflected the universalistic aspect of the state: Greeks were prominent in the bureaucracy; Mamluks (slave soldiers) of Christian origin rose to top military and political office, while in the provinces Turkish landed notables and Arab religious leaders ( ulama ) linked state

in The international politics of the Middle East