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Mørten Bøås, Bård Drange, Dlawer Ala'Aldeen, Abdoul Wahab Cissé, and Qayoom Suroush

hardly understood the issue at hand, and its efforts faced a lack of political will in the Afghan government to reform ( Burke, 2014 : 1). Furthermore, few international advisors knew Islamic law well – critical in a justice system with large influence from this ( Burke, 2014 : 12). These examples illustrate how the EU seems very far away from building local ownership and making interventions conflict-sensitive, lowering any hope

in The EU and crisis response
A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism
Bassam Tibi

concept of political order. To be sure, it is not democratic order ( Tibi, 1998a : chapters 7 and 8 ). The assumption is that a democratic peace is a guarantee of non-belligerent conflict resolution in that democracies negotiate, but do not wage wars against each other (see Russet, 1993 ). In this regard, the question is whether divine orders, based on the Sharia (Islamic law) or, alternatively, on the Halakha (Jewish law

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Ingo Peters, Enver Ferhatovic, Rebea Heinemann, and Sofia Sturm

-transformation rhetoric. In Afghanistan, local ownership was a key principle within EUPOL’s stated objectives and strategies to contribute to the establishment of sustainable and effective civilian policing arrangements ( Council of the European Union, 2007 ). However, ownership and conflict sensitivity have not always been tangible, as Islamic law and native customs were not covered by training

in The EU and crisis response
A veiled threat
Thomas J. Butko

). 5 The Sharia , or more specifically Islamic Law, is derived primarily from the Quran . 6 Hamas was not originally created for the purpose of providing an alternative to the PLO, but rather for the purpose of responding to the intifada and the continuing Israeli occupation. However, it has

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

The Ottoman system was the antithesis of the European nation-state system. It was a patrimonial empire headed by a Sultan-Caliph whose rule was legitimated by the implementation of the Islamic law, the outward sign of the supranational Islamic umma . The ruling elite’s multi-national origins reflected the universalistic aspect of the state: Greeks were prominent in the bureaucracy; Mamluks (slave soldiers) of Christian origin rose to top military and political office, while in the provinces Turkish landed notables and Arab religious leaders ( ulama ) linked state

in The international politics of the Middle East