Fabrice Weissman

the hostages with greater commercial and political value, mobilisation campaigns may serve to protect their lives and pressure those with the power to facilitate their release. British journalists have noted that the lack of information and public advocacy on behalf of aid workers David Haines and Allan Henning, who were abducted in Syria by the Islamic State (IS) in 2014, did not prevent their execution. On the contrary, the silence of their

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

-trust-mass-media-sinks-new-low.aspx (accessed 9 June 2018) . Tabatabai , A. ( 2018 ), ‘ A Brief History of Iranian Fake News: How Disinformation Campaigns Shaped the Islamic Republic ’, Foreign Affairs , 24 August , www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/middle-east/2018-08-24/brief-history-iranian-fake-news (accessed September 28, 2018) . Tandoc , E. , Lim , Z. W. and Ling , R. ( 2018 ), ‘ Defining “Fake News” ’, Digital Journalism , 6 : 2 , 137 – 53 . Taylor , J. ( 2000 ), ‘ Problems in Photojournalism: Realism, the Nature of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

the Islamic Development Bank, and (now in place) an endowment fund proposed by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. In the context of the long-standing financial deficit, although UNRWA has continued to provide ‘relief and works’, the actual services provided have been reduced and the groups of Palestinian refugees entitled to receive UNRWA services have constantly shrunk over time. With a current total registered refugee population of over five million people in the Middle East, ‘UNRWA’s mandate extends to groups or categories of vulnerable

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

everyday life. Unlike other religions, Islam is seen to be well equipped to provide guidance to its followers on circumventing the seductive trappings of this life, offering explicitly political instructions on how best to live life through adherence to the Quran and Sunna  –​seen to be Divine Law  –​yet the very interpretation of such texts by infallible human agency brings in subjectivity, couched in contingency, which leads to division, difference and ultimately, the erosion of God’s sovereignty. This chapter focuses on competing claims of authority found within

in Houses built on sand
The Moslem question in Bosnia-Hercegovina
David Bruce MacDonald

concealed an Islamic conspiracy to take over Europe. While the third theme will be discussed later, it is useful to understand the first one clearly. To summarise this argument: while the Moslems of Bosnia had been forced to convert to Islam, certain linguistic and cultural attributes still marked them as either Serb or Croat. Bosnian Moslems were seen to be members of one religious community, while at the same time belonging to an 221 2441Chapter8 16/10/02 8:06 am Page 222 Balkan holocausts? altogether different ethnic group. Because of these highly contested

in Balkan holocausts?
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

Turkish nationalism and Islam Turkey professes to be a secular state, the only such country in the Middle East and the only secular Muslim country in the world. Turkey is a living example, though not without difficulties, of a country whose population is predominantly Muslim but which is not a Muslim state. Ayse Kadioglu supplies a brief but painful enough reminder of the reforms, better called trauma, that the country and its population had experienced, which helps when evaluating the interaction between state and

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
Reinterpreting Russia in the twenty-first century
Andrew Monaghan

that the war in Syria may offer grounds for some form of cooperation between the West and Russia in their opposition to Islamic State, this has yet to flower. Indeed, in many ways, Russia’s military deployment and air campaign in Syria has also emphasised the themes running through the book – the sense of surprise in the West when the Russians acted, and the deep disagreements over the nature of the

in The new politics of Russia
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

fifty or more ethnic groups – might face grave risks. Turkish nationalism that politically, culturally, and socially faces challenges but nevertheless aspires westwards, will be reluctant to be the Turkic ethnic and cultural pivot, let alone its police force. “We are not going to build an Eastern alternative” declared President Demirel, emphasizing the direction that Turkey had no intention of taking (see Chapter 4 , p. 114 ). Internally, too, there are “not”s and “if”s. Turkey’s Islam is more Turkish than Pan-Islamic. A declared Muslim

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

the supremacy of the state and the Islamists who argued that sovereignty was found in God. This religious revival challenged the fragile relationship between peoples and their nascent national projects, also serving as an outlet for political dissent. This struggle would be at the heart of political life in the years that followed. Yet this was not a singular struggle between those advocating the sovereignty of the state and those espousing the sovereignty of God, but complicated by a range of often competing interpretations about the role of Islam within political

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

national identity involved harnessing a number of historical narratives, cultural norms and tribal values in an attempt to create a convincing narrative of how the political vision should be expressed. Of course, by its very nature, such projects are exclusive and required the rejection of other narratives. Exclusion fed into already existing socio-​economic grievances, creating fertile breeding ground for a range of different ideologies including Arabism, Ba’athism, Islamism, Communism, along with incarnations of nationalism defined within territorial borders. Following

in Houses built on sand