political issue, which runs the risk of raising the stakes. On the other hand, by endowing the hostages with greater commercial and political value, mobilisation campaigns may serve to protect their lives and pressure those with the power to facilitate their release. British journalists have noted that the lack of information and public advocacy on behalf of aid workers David Haines and Allan Henning, who were abducted in Syria by the Islamic State (IS) in 2014, did not prevent their execution. On the contrary, the silence of their organisation and the media may have

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

-trust-mass-media-sinks-new-low.aspx (accessed 9 June 2018) . Tabatabai , A. ( 2018 ), ‘ A Brief History of Iranian Fake News: How Disinformation Campaigns Shaped the Islamic Republic ’, Foreign Affairs , 24 August , www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/middle-east/2018-08-24/brief-history-iranian-fake-news (accessed September 28, 2018) . Tandoc , E. , Lim , Z. W. and Ling , R. ( 2018 ), ‘ Defining “Fake News” ’, Digital Journalism , 6 : 2 , 137 – 53 . Taylor , J. ( 2000 ), ‘ Problems in Photojournalism: Realism, the Nature of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local

the Islamic Development Bank, and (now in place) an endowment fund proposed by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. In the context of the long-standing financial deficit, although UNRWA has continued to provide ‘relief and works’, the actual services provided have been reduced and the groups of Palestinian refugees entitled to receive UNRWA services have constantly shrunk over time. With a current total registered refugee population of over five million people in the Middle East, ‘UNRWA’s mandate extends to groups or categories of vulnerable

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Moslem question in Bosnia-Hercegovina

concealed an Islamic conspiracy to take over Europe. While the third theme will be discussed later, it is useful to understand the first one clearly. To summarise this argument: while the Moslems of Bosnia had been forced to convert to Islam, certain linguistic and cultural attributes still marked them as either Serb or Croat. Bosnian Moslems were seen to be members of one religious community, while at the same time belonging to an 221 2441Chapter8 16/10/02 8:06 am Page 222 Balkan holocausts? altogether different ethnic group. Because of these highly contested

in Balkan holocausts?
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Turkish nationalism and Islam Turkey professes to be a secular state, the only such country in the Middle East and the only secular Muslim country in the world. Turkey is a living example, though not without difficulties, of a country whose population is predominantly Muslim but which is not a Muslim state. Ayse Kadioglu supplies a brief but painful enough reminder of the reforms, better called trauma, that the country and its population had experienced, which helps when evaluating the interaction between state and

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
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Reinterpreting Russia in the twenty-first century

that the war in Syria may offer grounds for some form of cooperation between the West and Russia in their opposition to Islamic State, this has yet to flower. Indeed, in many ways, Russia’s military deployment and air campaign in Syria has also emphasised the themes running through the book – the sense of surprise in the West when the Russians acted, and the deep disagreements over the nature of the

in The new politics of Russia
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fifty or more ethnic groups – might face grave risks. Turkish nationalism that politically, culturally, and socially faces challenges but nevertheless aspires westwards, will be reluctant to be the Turkic ethnic and cultural pivot, let alone its police force. “We are not going to build an Eastern alternative” declared President Demirel, emphasizing the direction that Turkey had no intention of taking (see Chapter 4 , p. 114 ). Internally, too, there are “not”s and “if”s. Turkey’s Islam is more Turkish than Pan-Islamic. A declared Muslim

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

. Some people will belong to small, intensely sectarian groups; some will belong to Churches that are organised on a cosmopolitan scale (such as Islam or Roman Catholicism). For some the essence of religious practice may be community action; for others it may be a cloistered monastic ideal. Some may belong to Churches (like Episcopalianism) that retain some of the official character they had before they were disestablished; some may practice cults like spiritualism that are frowned on in official circles. Some people will be tormented by religious doubt; others will

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
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had been compromised and that purification by means of a return to the well springs was required. For religions with a strong basis in scriptures, notably Protestant Christianity, Islam and Judaism, this involves going back to what is taken to be the original meaning of the texts, texts whose ultimate validity is their divine inspiration. Fundamentalism is, however, not confined to these faiths. There are versions of it in

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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, Turkey’s first politically Muslim Prime Minister, Necmettin Erbakan, did not Islamize its foreign policy, nor did he bring excessive Muslim policies to bear on its domestic affairs. The 1990s were also successful for Turkey internally, although here the results are clearly more mixed. The Kurdish revolt has been curbed, the Turkish economy has achieved some important gains, secular–religious disagreements have not worsened, and wider circles – hitherto not a party to the decision-making procedures in Turkey – have taken part in municipal, national

in Turkey: facing a new millennium